如何为世界地图加上“消失”的十亿人口? Rebecca Firth: Can we call it a "world map" if it's missing a billion people?

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演员: Rebecca Firth


台词
When Hurricane Maria hit Puerto Rico in 2017,
2017 年,当玛丽亚飓风 袭击波多黎各的时候,
we all watched as a disaster played out on our screens.
我们都在屏幕上目睹了这场浩劫。
At least 160,000 people were displaced,
至少 16 万人流离失所,
and nearly 3,000 people died.
将近 3000 人死亡。
Electricity was cut off to the entire island,
整个岛屿的电力都被切断了,
and some neighborhoods didn't get power back for 11 months.
一些社区甚至 11 个月 都没有恢复供电。
Many of those watching didn't know how to help.
很多看到这些的人们 并不知道如何提供帮助。
Some donated to international NGOs.
一些人捐款给国际非政府组织。
Some lobbied their elected officials.
一些人游说他们选举出的官员。
But as with so many crises,
但是就像面对许多危机时一样,
so many of us simply gave in and felt helpless.
我们中的许多人都感到爱莫能助。
At the Humanitarian OpenStreetMap team,
在人道主义“开放街图”团队,
also known as HOT,
简称“HOT”,
we did something different.
我们做了一些不同的事。
We mobilized 6,000 volunteers across the world
我们在世界各地 动员了 6000 名志愿者,
who mapped every home and every road in Puerto Rico.
他们绘制了波多黎各的 每一个家庭和每一条道路的位置。
And here you can see the maps those volunteers made taking shape.
在这里你可以看到 志愿者们绘制的地图正在成形。
Responders then used those maps to assess the state of buildings and roads
然后,应急人员会利用这些地图 来评估建筑物和道路的情况,
and to provide emergency funds, WiFi and phone-charging points
并用于提供应急资金、 WiFi 和手机充电点
to people whose homes were damaged.
给那些家园被破坏的人们。
All crises,
所有危机,
including the COVID-19 pandemic we're living through right now,
包括我们目前正在经历的 新冠肺炎疫情,
have devastating characteristics.
都具有破坏性特征。
But many of them have one thing in common:
但是其中的许多危机 都有一个共同点:
the people hit the hardest are often literally not on the map.
受灾最严重的地区 经常在地图上找不到。
Right now, more than one billion people live in places that are not mapped.
目前,有超过 10 亿人 生活在没有被测绘的地区。
If you look those places up online,
如果你上网查找这些地方,
you'll see nothing but a blank.
你只会看到一片空白。
And that blank isn't just a huge statement of disrespect
并且这种空白不仅仅是 对我们人类同胞的
to our fellow human beings,
巨大的不尊重,
it's an injustice,
它更是一种不公正,
causing very direct, very real and very avoidable human suffering.
造成了十分直接、十分真实, 且完全可避免的人类痛苦。
So what does not being on the digital map actually look like?
那么没有出现在数字地图上的景象 看起来如何呢?
I live in Peru, and a few months ago,
我住在秘鲁,几个月前,
some community health workers asked us to help them map.
一些社区卫生工作者 让我们帮助他们绘制地图。
Obviously, where they were wasn't mapped,
显然,他们的位置 没有被绘制在地图上,
so to get there, we asked a local mayor to draw the route.
于是为了到达那里, 我们请当地市长画出路线。
This is what he drew.
这就是他所画的。
This piece of paper was hard to follow. (Laughs)
这张纸很难理解。(笑)
We didn't really know what these lines were.
我们不是十分清楚这些线是什么。
He put some numbers on there that he assured us were travel times,
他在上面放了一些数字, 向我们保证这是路上所需的时间,
but as we were driving along,
但在沿途行驶的过程中,
these did not correspond to our reality.
我们却发现这些信息 与实际情况相差甚远。
But this isn't about me getting lost
但重点不在于我迷路了,
or about shaming someone's bad drawing skills.
或者嘲笑别人糟糕的绘画技巧。
Think how inefficient it is to manage a team
想想看,如果没有地图 告诉团队该往哪里走,
who need to work in this place
那么一个需要 在这个地方工作的团队,
without a map to tell them where they need to go.
管理起来会是多么的低效。
Then, once they're in the right village,
那么,一旦他们到了正确的村庄,
how can they collect some data and associate it to that place?
他们要怎样收集一些数据, 并将其与那个地方联系起来呢?
Those community health workers know that needs in this region are high,
那些社区卫生工作者 知道这个地区的需求很高,
particularly anemia and malnutrition among children.
尤其是儿童之中的贫血和营养不良。
They just don't know where those children are,
他们只是不知道那些儿童在哪里,
or what is causing that problem.
或者是什么造成了那些问题。
They want to be able to locate the home of every child under five,
他们希望能够找到 每一个 5 岁以下儿童的家,
but how can they do that without a map?
但是没有地图要怎么做到呢?
After a brief training, we went out to make a map,
在短暂的培训之后, 我们便出门进行测绘,
and this is what those community health workers produced.
这就是那些社区卫生工作者制作的地图。
This map has everything you need to navigate,
这张地图有导航所需的一切信息,
like the rivers and bridges,
比如河流和桥梁,
but it also has every local landmark, the school, the football pitch, the plaza.
但它也有当地的每一个地标, 学校、足球场、购物中心。
And I'm pleased to say that a few weeks ago,
我很高兴地说,几周前,
we got a call from those community health workers,
我们接到了 那些社区卫生工作者的电话,
and they're using this map in their response containing COVID-19.
他们正在使用这张地图 来应对新冠疫情。
So you might be thinking:
你也许在想:
Why aren't these places on commercial maps?
为什么这些地方不在商业地图上?
In short, mapping the most vulnerable places in our world
简单来说,测绘我们这个世界上 最脆弱的地区
just hasn't been a priority for for-profit companies,
并不是盈利性公司的首要任务,
whose business models typically rely on advertising and data sales.
它们的商业模式一般依赖于 广告和销售数据。
This leaves out the poorest communities
这就自动排除了最贫穷的社区,
and means that individual aid organizations create maps
并且意味着个人援助组织
for the small areas that they're working in
要为他们在离线系统中 工作的小区域创建地图,
in offline systems which rapidly become out-of-date when a project ends.
而当项目结束时, 这些地图很快就会过时。
So what we have here is a lack of easily shareable
所以我们现在缺乏的是 可以方便的共享
and easily updatable data.
和更新的数据。
But we also have a solution.
不过对此, 我们也有一个解决方案。
We map with a tool called OpenStreetMap,
我们用一个叫做“开放街图” (OpenStreetMap)的工具绘制地图,
which was founded in 2006
它诞生于 2006 年, 是一个免费的开源工具,
and is a free, open-source tool which anyone can use to map the world.
任何人都可以用它来绘制世界地图。
Just as anyone can read or edit an article on Wikipedia,
就像任何人都可以在维基百科上 阅读或编辑一篇文章一样,
anyone can use or edit the map in OpenStreetMap,
任何人都可以使用或编辑 “开放街图”上的地图,
and the resulting map is public good,
并且产生的地图是公共产品,
free and open for anyone to use,
免费开放给任何人使用,
creating one map for all of us.
是所有人共享的一张地图。
It works in two phases.
创建地图的流程分为两个步骤。
Buildings and roads might not be on the map yet,
建筑物和道路可能 还没有出现在地图上,
but you can see them clearly in satellite imagery.
但你可以在卫星图像中 清楚地看到它们。
Volunteers working anywhere in the world turn satellite images into maps
在世界任何地方工作的志愿者 都可以通过在卫星图像上
through drawing the buildings and roads
绘制建筑物和道路,
on top of them.
将其转换成地图。
We call this a base map.
我们称之为底图。
On average, each time a volunteer logs in,
通常来说,每次志愿者登录,
they map an area less than 10 kilometers squared,
他们只会绘制一个 面积不足 10 平方公里的区域,
but add all those contributions together,
但是把所有的工作加在一起,
and you can map entire cities in just a couple of days.
你就可以在仅仅几天之内 绘制出整个城市的地图。
And second, local mapping.
第二步是局部绘制。
People living and working in the places we're mapping
在我们正在绘制的地区 生活和工作的人们
take that base map and color it in,
可以拿着底图进行上色,
for example, identifying: Is this building a school or a hospital?
例如,识别:这个建筑 是学校还是医院?
Those people add information you can't see in a satellite image.
这些人添加了 卫星图像中看不到的信息。
We found people able and eager to map
我们甚至在世界上 形势最严峻的地方
in even the most challenging situations worldwide,
找到了有能力 并愿意绘制地图的人。
and we've optimized the tools to work on smartphones
我们还优化了工具,
costing as little as 30 dollars.
让人们在廉价智能手机上 也可以使用。
Additionally, the tools work offline,
此外,这些工具还能离线工作,
so people without regular access to cell service can still contribute,
因此,没有固定手机服务的人 仍然可以贡献他们的力量,
adding things to the map as they go about their daily lives,
把他们的日常生活中的 一些事物添加到地图上,
and then uploading when they get access to cell service or WiFi.
然后在接入手机联网服务 或 WiFi 时进行上传。
In 10 years, we've seen people from all walks of life take part.
十年来,我们看到了 各行各业的人都在参与其中。
Refugees have mapped broken water points.
难民们绘制了坏掉的供水点。
Rural women have added place names in Indigenous languages.
农村妇女们用土著语言添加了地名。
And, in doing so, people become active agents of change
在这个过程中, 人们成为了社区变革的
in their communities.
积极推动者。
Since 2010, HOT has engaged over 200,000 volunteers
自 2010 年以来,“HOT”已经吸引了 超过 20 万名志愿者,
who have mapped an area home to more than 150 million people
他们在开放街图上绘制了
in OpenStreetMap.
一个居住人口超过 1.5 亿的地区。
Those maps have been used by search and rescue operations
这些地图被用于 2010 年海地地震后的搜救行动,
to free hundreds of people trapped in collapsed buildings
解救了数百名
after the 2010 Haiti earthquake.
被困倒塌建筑物中的民众。
They've been used to provide polio vaccinations to children
这些地图也被用来 为尼日利亚所有农村地区的儿童
across all of rural Nigeria.
提供脊髓灰质炎疫苗,
And they've mapped the camps, routes and new homes
志愿者还为逃离南苏丹、 叙利亚和委内瑞拉的
of more than eight million refugees fleeing South Sudan, Syria and Venezuela.
800 多万难民绘制出了 营地、路线和新家园的所在地。
We work with the biggest humanitarian organizations in the world
我们和世界上最大的 人道主义组织一起工作,
to make sure these maps have impact --
以确保这些地图发挥了作用,
the Red Cross, Médecins Sans Frontières, UNICEF to name a few --
比如红十字会、无国界医生组织、 联合国儿童基金会等等,
and we currently have a queue of more than 2,000 places
目前仍有 2000 多个区域
needing to be mapped.
等待测绘。
So that's the story so far.
这就是到目前为止的情况。
But wouldn't it be great if these places were on the map
但如果这些地方 在危机来临之前就出现在地图上,
before they were in crisis?
不是更好吗?
Now we're ready for a step change.
现在我们已经准备好做出 阶段性的改变。
Over the past few years,
在过去的几年中,
we've gained access to global, regularly updated satellite imagery.
我们已经获得了使用 全球定期更新的卫星图像的机会。
Machine learning and AI are helping human mappers
机器学习和人工智能 正在帮助人类制图者
to work more efficiently.
更高效地工作。
And worldwide, more and more people are willing and able
在世界各地, 越来越多的人们愿意并能够
to map their communities.
绘制他们社区的地图。
Over the next five years,
在未来的五年中,
we'll engage one million volunteers who will map an area
我们将招募 100 万志愿者, 共同绘制出
home to the one billion most vulnerable people
94 个国家中
across 94 countries.
10 亿最贫困人口的家园。
To achieve this,
为了实现这个目标,
we need to do three things.
我们需要做三件事。
First, we need to grow our community to one million mappers,
第一,我们需要将社区 发展到 100 万制图者,
who will build a world where everyone everywhere is represented.
他们将建立一个让世界各地的 每个人都能被代表的世界。
We'll set up a network of regional hubs
我们将建立一个区域性中心网络
to train and support those volunteers
来培训并支持这些志愿者们
to map the vulnerable places in their own countries.
绘制他们自己国家中 最脆弱地区的地图。
Second, we need to invest in technology.
第二,我们需要投资于科技。
Right now, you can add something like a building or a local landmark
现在,你只需要花几秒钟就能 添加一些信息到地图上,
to the map in just a few seconds,
比如,一个建筑或区域地标。
but learning to map
但是学会绘制地图,
and mapping easily and quickly on a mobile
并能在移动设备上轻松快速的绘图
can be a problem.
可能是一个问题。
We need to invest in technologies
我们需要在技术上进行投资,
to make mobile edits to the map possible at a massive scale.
使大规模可移动的地图编辑成为可能。
And third, we need to raise awareness.
第三,我们需要提高人们的认知。
Aid projects across the world need to know
世界各地的援助项目需要知道,
that these maps are free and available for them to use
这些地图可以免费使用,
and that they can request maps for the areas that they're working in.
他们也可以要求他们 所在的工作区域的地图。
For me, this is one of the most wonderful things about this project.
对我而言,这是这个项目 最精彩的部分之一。
It isn't really about HOT or any single organization.
这并不是关于“HOT” 或者任何单一的组织。
It's about creating a foundation
而是要打造一个平台,
on which so many organizations will thrive.
让许多组织在此基础上茁壮成长。
Whatever we do,
无论我们做什么,
disasters and crises will still happen,
灾难和危机都仍然会发生。
and humanitarians will still respond to them.
并且人道主义者们 仍会对此做出回应。
Development programs will continue,
发展规划将继续进行,
but without maps, they'll lack critical information
但是如果没有地图,
about what to expect in the community before they get there.
他们在到达那里之前 将无法预知关于社区的关键信息。
With open, free, up-to-date maps,
有了开放的、免费的、更新的地图,
those programs will have more impact than they would do otherwise,
这些计划会比其他方式 产生更大的影响,
leading to a meaningful difference in lives saved or improved.
并在拯救生命和改善生活方面 带来意义深刻的改变。
But it's so much more than that.
但这个项目的作用远不止这些。
It's 2020, and one billion people in our world are not visible.
现在是 2020 年, 全世界仍有 10 亿人是“不可见”的。
That's wrong.
这一事实让人无法接受。
This is a tool through which every citizen of Planet Earth
这个项目就是一个工具,
can become known and seen,
通过它,地球上的每个公民 都可以被了解和看到,
to literally be put on the map.
并真正出现在地图上。
My peers complain about being too overconnected,
我的同事们抱怨自己 与外界的联系太过紧密,
so how can it be possible for more than a billion people
那么这十亿人怎么可能
to remain invisible?
一直以来都不可见呢?
Luckily, this is a problem even the laziest among us
幸运的是,即使是我们中最懒的人,
can help to solve.
也能帮助解决这个问题。
If you can swipe left or right,
如果你能向左或向右滑动屏幕,
you can help.
你就能帮得上忙。
Map this morning
早上绘制出地图,
and influence life-changing decisions this afternoon.
当天下午就能对若干 改变人生的决定产生影响。
Frontline health workers and humanitarians are literally waiting for you.
一线卫生工作者和 人道主义者正等待着你们的加入。
Thank you.
谢谢你们。