美国颁布禁酒令之后发生了什么? Rod Phillips: What happened when the United States tried to ban alcohol

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演员: Rod Phillips


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On January 17, 1920, six armed men robbed a Chicago freight train.
1920 年 1 月 17 日,六个全副武装的男性 抢劫了一辆芝加哥的货运火车,
But it wasn’t money they were after.
他们的目标却不是为了钱。
Less than one hour after spirits had become illegal
当烈酒在美国全境被禁的
throughout the United States,
一小时之内,
the robbers made off with thousands of dollars worth of whiskey.
价值数千美金的威士忌被劫走。
It was a first taste of the unintended consequences of Prohibition.
这是禁酒令颁布后带来的 第一个出人意料的后果。
The nationwide ban on the production and sale of alcohol in the United States
这个在美国全境 禁绝酒精生产和销售的决定
came on the heels of a similar ban in Russia
可以追溯到一战期间,
that started as a wartime measure during World War I.
作为战时措施, 苏联颁布过的一个类似的禁令。
But the view in the Western world of alcohol
但在西方世界里,
as a primary cause of social ills was much older.
酒精早已被视为社会弊病的源头。
It first gained traction during the Industrial Revolution
这种论调在第一次工业革命期间 开始日渐风靡。
as new populations of workers poured into cities
当时成群的劳工涌进城市,
and men gathered in saloons to drink.
聚众饮酒。
By the 19th century, anti-drinking groups called temperance movements
到了 19 世纪,反饮酒组织的 “禁酒运动”(temperance movements)
began to appear in the United States and parts of Europe.
开始在美国和欧洲部分地区萌芽。
Temperance groups believed that alcohol was the fundamental driver
禁酒组织相信酒精是
behind problems like poverty and domestic violence,
贫穷、家庭暴力等问题的元凶,
and set out to convince governments of this.
并致力于向政府传达这一信息。
While some simply advocated moderate drinking,
尽管一部分人倡导适量饮酒,
many believed alcohol should be banned entirely.
但多数人深信酒精应该被彻底禁止。
These movements drew support from broad sectors of society.
这些运动受到社会各界领袖 广泛的支持和资助。
Women’s organizations were active participants from the beginning,
女性组织从一开始 就活跃地参与其中,
arguing that alcohol made men neglect their families and abuse their wives.
声称酒精让男人 无视家庭并虐待配偶。
Religious authorities, especially Protestants,
宗教领袖,特别是基督新教教徒,
denounced alcohol as leading to temptation and sin.
还曾公开发声,认定酒精 是诱惑和罪恶之源。
Progressive labor activists believed alcohol consumption
进步劳工活动家相信
harmed workers’ ability to organize.
饮酒有损工人的组织能力。
Governments weren’t strangers to the idea of prohibition, either.
政府对这种禁令同样不陌生。
In the United States and Canada, white settlers introduced hard liquors
在美国和加拿大, 白人殖民者为当地原住民
like rum to Native communities,
引进了朗姆酒等烈酒,
then blamed alcohol for disrupting these communities—
然后将这些社区 受到的破坏归罪于酒精——
though there were many other destructive aspects of their interactions.
尽管这些毁灭性打击 是由殖民者的其他行为造成的。
The American and Canadian governments banned the sale of alcohol
美国和加拿大政府 禁止了向美国原住民、
to Native populations and on reservation land.
以及在原住民保留地内卖酒的行为。
American temperance movements gained their first victories
美国禁酒运动在各州政府
at the state and local levels,
与各个社区内初战告捷:
with Maine and several other states banning the sale and production of liquor
缅因州等其他几个州 在 19 世纪 50 年代
in the 1850s.
禁止了酒精的生产与销售。
In 1919 the 18th Amendment to the US Constitution
1919 年,美国第 18 次宪法修正案
banned the manufacture, sale, and transportation
禁止了对所有酒类饮品的
of all alcoholic beverages.
生产、销售,以及运输。
The amendment took effect a year later under the Volstead Act.
一年后,修正案的沃尔斯泰德法 (Volstead Act 又称 “禁酒法” )生效。
Since the act did not ban personal consumption,
由于法令并没有禁止个人饮酒,
wealthy people took the opportunity to stock up while restaurants and bars
一些富人趁此机会大量买入饭店和酒吧
rushed to sell their remaining supply.
急于出售的存酒。
Workers lost their jobs as distilleries, breweries, and wineries closed down.
劳工们随着烈酒场,啤酒厂 和红酒厂的倒闭而纷纷失业。
Meanwhile, organized crime groups rushed to meet the demand for alcohol,
同时,有组织的犯罪激增, 以满足人们对酒精的需求,
establishing a lucrative black market in producing, smuggling,
生产、走私、贩卖非法酒精
and selling illicit liquor.
以获取暴利的黑市渐渐成型。
Often they worked side-by side with corrupt policemen
他们常常与腐败的警察
and government officials,
以及政府官员合作,
even bombing the 1928 primary election for Illinois state attorney
甚至出于对某政治派系的支持,
in support of a particular political faction.
用炸弹袭击了1928 年 伊利诺伊州首席检察官的选举活动。
Tens of thousands of illegal bars, known as "speakeasies,"
成千上万的非法酒馆, 俗称 ”speakeasies“,
began serving alcohol.
开始卖酒。
They ranged from dingy basement bars to elaborate dance-halls.
他们存在于狭窄的地下室, 也出现在装饰考究的舞蹈大厅。
People could also make alcohol at home for their own consumption,
人们还会在家自己酿酒饮用,
or obtain it legally with a doctor’s prescription or for religious purposes.
也能凭医生处方 或出于宗教原因而合法获取。
To prevent industrial alcohol from being consumed,
为了防止人们饮用工业酒精,
the government required manufacturers to add harmful chemicals,
政府要求制造商在酒精中 添加有害的化学物质,
leading to thousands of poisoning deaths.
由此被毒死的人数以千计。
We don’t know exactly how much people were drinking during Prohibition
我们无法获取人们在禁酒期间 饮酒量的具体数据,
because illegal alcohol wasn’t regulated or taxed.
因为非法酒精交易 无人监督,也无需上税。
But by the late 1920s,
但到了 20 世纪 20 年代末,
it was clear that Prohibition had not brought the social improvements
显而易见的是,禁酒运动并没有
it had promised.
带来预想中的社会进步。
Instead it contributed to political corruption and organized crime
恰恰相反,它变成了腐败政客 以及犯罪组织的温床,
and was flouted by millions of citizens.
并遭到几百万群众的漠视。
At one raid on an Detroit beer hall, the local sheriff, mayor and a congressman
在一次底特律啤酒馆的突击检查中,
were arrested for drinking.
当地警长、市长, 还有一位国会议员因饮酒被捕。
With the start of the Great Depression in 1929,
1929 年大萧条开始后,
the government sorely needed the tax revenue from alcohol sales,
政府急需酒精交易带来的税收,
and believed that lifting Prohibition would stimulate the economy.
相信取消禁酒令会有刺激经济的作用。
In 1933, Congress passed the 21st Amendment repealing the 18th—
1933 年,国会通过了第二十一条修正案, 同时废除了第十八条修正案——
the only amendment to be fully repealed.
这是唯一一个 被彻底否决的宪法修正案。
Members of the temperance movements
禁酒运动的倡导者曾经相信
believed that alcohol was the root of society’s problems,
酒精是社会问题的根源所在,
but the reality is more complicated.
但现实比那复杂得多。
And while banning it completely didn’t work,
彻底禁绝酒类 并未取得预期的效果,
the health and social impacts of alcohol remain concerns today.
饮酒对健康以及社会的影响 直至今天仍在继续。