瑜伽对你的身体和大脑有什么影响 Krishna Sudhir: What yoga does to your body and brain

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演员: Krishna Sudhir


台词
At some point between the 1st and 5th century CE,
在公元一世纪和五世纪间,
the Hindu sage Patañjali began to codify the ancient, meditative traditions
印度智者帕坦伽利 (Patañjali)开始整理编纂
practiced throughout India.
在整个印度施行的 古老的冥想传统做法。
He recorded techniques nearly as old as Indian civilization itself
他在 196 颂的著作《瑜伽经》中
in 196 manuals called the Yoga Sutras.
记录了几乎与印度文明 一样古老的技术。
These texts defined yoga as the ‘yoking’ or restraining of the mind
这些经文将瑜伽定义为 “控制”,
from focusing on external objects
或是限制大脑对外部事物的关注,
in efforts to reach a state of pure consciousness.
以达到一种纯粹的意识状态。
Over time, yoga came to incorporate physical elements
随着时间的推移,瑜伽融入了源于
from gymnastics and wrestling.
体操和摔跤的体育元素。
Today, there are a multitude of approaches to modern yoga—
如今,现代瑜伽 有很多种不同的练习方式,
though most still maintain the three core elements of Patañjali’s practice:
然而,大多数仍保留了帕坦伽利
physical postures, breathing exercises, and spiritual contemplation.
所提出的的三个核心要素:
This blend of physical and mental exercise
身体姿势,呼吸练习, 和精神冥思。
is widely believed to have a unique set of health advantages.
很多人认为这种身心结合的练习
Such as improving strength and flexibility,
有着独特的健康效益。
boosting heart and lung function, and enhancing psychological well-being.
比如提高机体的力量和柔韧性,
But what have contemporary studies shown regarding the benefits
增强心肺功能,和改善心理健康。
of this ancient tradition?
但是对于这项古老的传统所带来的益处,
Despite attempts by many researchers,
当代研究到底为我们展现了什么呢?
it's tough to make specific claims about yoga's advantages.
尽管很多科学家都尝试过,
Its unique combination of activities makes it difficult to determine
但仍然很难明确瑜伽的优点。
which component is producing a specific health benefit.
瑜伽将不同动作做了独特组合,
Additionally, yoga studies are often made up of small sample sizes
因此,判断哪方面 让健康获益变得颇有难度。
that lack diversity,
此外,瑜伽方面的研究 通常由缺乏多样性的小样本组成,
and the heavy reliance on self-reporting makes results subjective.
以及过于依赖参与者主观感受 都使研究结果缺乏客观性。
However, there are some health benefits
然而,有些瑜伽对身体的好处 和其他可能带来的好处相比
that have more robust scientific support than others.
有着更有力的科学依据作为支持。
Let’s start with flexibility and strength.
让我们从柔韧性和力量说起。
Twisting your body into yoga’s physical postures
将你的身体扭转成瑜伽的姿势
stretches multiple muscle groups.
可以拉伸多个肌肉群
In the short term, stretching can change the water content of these muscles,
拉伸在短期内可以改变被拉伸的 肌肉,韧带,以及肌腱中的含水量,
ligaments, and tendons to make them more elastic.
让它们变得更有弹性。
Over time, regular stretching stimulates stem cells
一段时间后, 定期拉伸会刺激干细胞,
which then differentiate into new muscle tissue
使其分化形成新的肌肉组织
and other cells that generate elastic collagen.
和其他的会生成弹性胶原纤维的细胞。
Frequent stretching also reduces the body’s natural reflex
频繁拉伸也会减少 人体肌肉收缩的自然反射,
to constrict muscles,
从而提高你对疼痛的耐受力 并以此获得更好的柔韧性。
improving your pain tolerance for feats of flexibility.
研究人员还没有发现 有某种瑜伽形式
Researchers haven’t found that any one form of yoga
比其他的瑜伽形式
improves flexibility more than another,
可以更好的提高身体的柔韧性,
so the impact of specific postures is unclear.
因此具体瑜伽姿势 对柔韧性的影响还不明确。
But like other low-impact exercises,
但是像其他低强度的运动一样,
yoga reliably improves fitness and flexibility in healthy populations.
瑜伽能以可靠的方式提高 健康人的身体素质和柔韧性。
The practice has also been shown to be a potentially powerful therapeutic tool.
瑜伽练习也被证实 有可能成为强大的治疗工具,
In studies involving patients with a variety of musculo-skeletal disorders,
在针对各种骨骼肌肉疾病患者的研究中,
yoga was more helpful at reducing pain and improving mobility
与其他低强度运动相比,
than other forms of low-impact exercise.
瑜伽在减轻疼痛 和增强运动能力方面更胜一筹。
Adding yoga to an existing exercise routine can improve strength
将瑜伽加入日常锻炼计划中
and flexibility for hard to treat conditions like chronic lower back pain,
可以增强机体力量和柔韧性,
rheumatoid arthritis, and osteoporosis.
从而帮助人们应对
Yoga’s mix of physical exercise and regimented breathing
慢性腰痛,类风湿性关节炎, 以及骨质疏松等难以治愈的疾病。
has proven similarly therapeutic for lung health.
瑜伽中体育锻炼与 有规律呼吸的结合
Lung diseases like chronic bronchitis, emphysema, and asthma
被证实对肺部健康 也有同样的保健作用。
shrink the passageways that carry oxygen,
如慢性支气管炎, 肺气肿和哮喘等肺部疾病,
while weakening the membrane that brings oxygen into the blood.
会使气道缩紧, 也让肺泡薄变得脆弱。
But breathing exercises like those found in yoga
但是瑜伽中针对呼吸的锻炼,
relax the muscles constricting those passageways
让本来使气道收缩的肌肉放松
and improve oxygen diffusion.
从而提高氧气的透过率。
Increasing the blood’s oxygen content is especially helpful
增加血液中氧气的含量,
for those with weak heart muscles
对那些心肌薄弱难以为身体 泵入足够氧气的人们特别有帮助。
who have difficulty pumping enough oxygen throughout the body.
对于那些拥有健康心脏的人们来说,
And for those with healthy hearts,
这项练习可以降低血压,
this practice can lower blood pressure and reduce risk factors
以及降低使心血管疾病 发生的危险因素。
for cardiovascular disease.
瑜伽最广为人知的好处
Yoga’s most widely celebrated benefit may be the most difficult to prove:
可能是最难被证实的:
its psychological effects.
是它对心理的影响。
Despite the longstanding association between yoga and psychological wellbeing,
尽管瑜伽和心理健康方面 有着长期的联系
there’s little conclusive evidence on how the practice affects mental health.
但是很少有确凿的证据
One of the biggest claims
证明瑜伽练习是 如何影响心理健康的。
is that yoga improves symptoms of depression and anxiety disorders.
其中最大的一种说法是
Since diagnosis of these conditions varies widely
瑜伽可以改善由抑郁症和 焦虑症所引起的症状。
as do their origin and severity, it’s difficult to quantify yoga’s impact.
由于这些病的诊断,起源, 和严重程度都有着很大的差异,
However, there is evidence to suggest
因此,瑜伽对其的影响 是很难被量化的。
that yoga can help reduce the symptoms of stress,
然而,有证据表明 瑜伽可以帮助人们减轻压力,
as well as meditation or relaxation.
以及帮助人们冥想和放松。
Research on the effects of yoga is still evolving.
对于瑜伽的研究仍在继续,
In the future, we’ll need larger studies, incorporating diverse participants,
将来,我们需要更大规模的研究, 并纳入不同的参与者,
which can measure yoga’s impact on heart attacks, cancer rates,
来衡量瑜伽对于 心脏病,癌症发病率,
cognitive function and more.
以及认知功能等多方面的影响。
But for now, yoga can continue its ancient tradition
但目前,瑜伽可以继续其古老的传统,
as a way to exercise, reflect, and relax.
作为一种供人们 锻炼、反思和放松的方式。