骚扰事件不姑息,健康职场方可期 Julia Shaw: How to support witnesses of harassment and build healthier workplaces

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演员: Julia Shaw


台词
I'm Dr. Julia Shaw,
我是朱莉亚·肖博士,
a research associate at University College London,
伦敦大学学院的一名助理研究员,
and the cofounder of Spot.
也是 Spot 组织的联合创始人。
Spot is a tool that helps organizations tackle harassment and discrimination
Spot 是一个帮助企业 解决骚扰及歧视问题的工具,
with better reporting options and better training.
具有良好的举报机制及培训模式。
And in 2019,
2019 年,
along with Dr. Camilla Elphick and Dr. Rashid Minhas,
我和卡米拉·埃尔菲克博士、 拉希德·米纳斯博士
and a number of international NGOs and charities,
以及很多国际非政府组织、慈善团体,
we conducted one of the largest studies ever
针对职场中骚扰和歧视现象的目击者
on witnesses of harassment and discrimination at work.
开展了有史以来最大的一项研究。
Why witnesses?
为什么研究目击者?
The first time that I was victimized
在我第一次
and became the target of inappropriate workplace behavior,
成为职场不正当行为的受害者时,
I hadn't even left university.
我尚未大学毕业。
A couple of academics who were far more senior than me
几位资历远高于我的 学术界人士
repeatedly and relentlessly targeted me.
持续不断地骚扰我。
And every time something happened,
每当事发,
I wished that someone would speak up.
我总希望有人能够发声。
That they would tell me that I'm not overreacting,
希望有人能告诉我, 我的反应是恰当的、
that I'm sane,
我的头脑是理智的、
that there's something that we could do.
此事是有应对方式的。
But instead,
然而,
I found myself with reporting paralysis.
我发现我本人竟无力上报此事。
I didn't speak up
我没有为自己发声,
and neither did most other people.
大多数旁人也没有。
Why didn't I just speak up?
我为什么默不作声?
Well, I was worried about the consequences for my career,
事实上,因为这样会 给我职业生涯造成负面的后果,
because I loved my work.
而我很爱我的工作。
I was also worried about things that many people see as barriers,
我也会为那些被常人 视作负担的因素担忧,
like not being believed or taken seriously,
例如,不被信任或认真对待,
like my situation resulting in no change.
或者即使我说出来也无济于事。
Luckily, over the past couple of years,
幸运的是,过去几年来,
we've seen that reporting paralysis is affecting fewer people
我们发现因故无力 上报的人越来越少,
and some people are able to now have voices
而其中一些原先被禁声的人
who before were voiceless.
现在也能够发声了。
When we first started Spot,
在 Spot 创立之初,
we allowed people to submit statements
我们让大家记述
about experiencing harassment or discrimination
自己亲历过的骚扰 或歧视事件,
to talktospot.com.
并发送到 talktospot.com。
And as researchers, we looked at these stories,
身为研究者,我们 在研读这些故事时
and we were shocked when we found
发现了一项惊人的事实:
that 93 percent of victims reported that there was at least one witness.
93% 的受害者表示,在他们的 事件中存在至少一位目击者。
These things aren't happening behind closed doors.
这类事件并非发生在 不为人知的场合。
Further research has since come out
后续研究也进而揭示
which has further repeated this idea
并反复印证了这一观点:
that most harassment and discrimination is witnessed.
大多数骚扰事件与歧视事件 就发生在人们眼皮底下。
And so how do we mobilize these witnesses?
那么我们该如何让 目击者们有所行动呢?
First, let's talk about the psychology of being a witness.
首先,我们来聊聊作为 一名目击者的心理活动。
In 2018, two women were at a Starbucks
2008 年,两位女士 在一间星巴克咖啡馆内
when they watched a barista deny access to a washroom
看到一个服务生禁止 两位非裔美籍男士
to two African American men.
使用店里的卫生间。
Instead, the barista called the police.
而且,该服务生还报了警。
The two active bystanders took a video of the men in handcuffs
这两位积极的旁观者拍下了 两名男士无端被捕的视频
and posted it online.
并传到了网上。
This active bystanding had an almost immediate positive effect.
这次积极的旁观举措 几乎立刻就起到了正面作用。
Starbucks closed a number of its doors and implemented bias training.
星巴克关闭了数间店铺, 并进行了避免偏见的职工培训。
Most of us think that we would be these active bystanders.
我们大部分人都认为 自己也是积极旁观者,
That we would be these kinds of heroes.
认为自己也能做出同类的英勇之举。
In fact, in research on this,
但实际上,在相关的研究中,
when researchers give people hypothetical scenarios
当研究者给出一个场景设想
and ask if they would intervene,
并询问人们是否会介入,
most of us say, "Yes, of course, of course I would stand up."
我们大部分人会说: “是的,我当然会挺身而出。”
But even when those same researchers
然而当同一批研究者
present an actual physical situation where someone needs to actually intervene,
营造出某人真正需要 他人介入的实情实景时,
most people do nothing.
大部分人却无所作为。
And they fall prey to the well-known bystander effect.
于是他们切身实践了 众所周知的“旁观者效应”。
Why?
为什么?
And what are the barriers that people are facing?
人们面前的障碍到底是什么?
In our research,
在我们的研究中,
three quarters of people who we had interviewed
在所有参与研究和被研究者中,
and who we had participate in our study --
有四分之三的人——
which was over 1,000 participants --
即在超过 1000 名参与者中,
three quarters of them said
有四分之三的人表示,
that they never reported the incident to HR,
他们从未将这类事件 报告给人力资源部,
they never reported the incident
他们从未将这类事件报告给
to someone who could do something about it.
有能力改变事态的人。
And the barriers that they cited?
是什么阻止了他们?
The number one barrier was actually the exact same
首当其冲的阻碍
as the main barrier that victims report,
与受害者不愿报案的理由完全相同:
which is the fear of consequences or retaliation.
害怕此举所招致的后果或是报复。
Even witnesses are worried about what might happen
连目击者都会为自己的人身安全
to them and their careers.
或是职位感到担忧。
Other reasons that people reported
人们也提到了其它因素:
was not wanting to interfere or not wanting to be a snitch,
不愿多管闲事、 不愿当告密者;
not knowing they could report, or not knowing how.
或是认为自己上报无门、 不知如何上报。
All of these things can be targeted
而这一切都是
with better education and better systems in workplaces.
更完善的职场认知与职场系统 需要解决的问题。
But the story of the witness isn't complete
但既然要聊发生在 目击者身上的故事,
without also talking about the consequences
就不能不说说那些事件
for the witnesses themselves.
给目击者本人造成的后果。
If you were to see someone who just witnessed a crime
如果你遇上了一个人,
being committed on the street,
此人刚刚目睹一场 公共场合犯罪事件,
you would almost certainly go up to that witness
你多半会走上前去 对这位目击者说:
and say, "Are you OK?
“你还好吗?
Do you need some support?"
需不需要什么帮忙?”
You might even offer them counseling or therapy
你也许还会为他们 提供咨询或治疗
to process what they just saw.
来缓解目击事件带来的刺激。
But witnesses at work are largely invisible.
但职场中的目击者 往往是看不见的。
And of course, so is support for them.
当然,能给予他们的支持 也是看不见的。
And some of this invisibility might even be internalized.
而其中一些看不见的 问题甚至会内化。
When we asked our participants about reporting,
当我们向参与者们提及上报时,
and when we asked them about the negative consequences for them,
当我们向参与者们问到 上报的负面后果时,
we found that most people said, when asked directly,
当我们直接发问:
"Did witnessing this experience have a negative repercussion?"
“目睹这类事件 会对你产生负面影响吗?”
Most people said, "No, I'm fine."
我们发现大部分人都说: “不会,我挺好的。”
But when we looked at the qualitative entries,
可当我们着眼于 实质性的记录,
when we looked at what people actually wrote about this experience,
当我们着眼于人们对 这类经历的文字描述时,
we found that these experiences had profoundly negative impacts.
我们发现这些经历已然 造成了深刻的负面影响。
They increased stress and anxiety and depression,
他们的压力、焦虑 与抑郁情绪加重了;
they increased the prevalence of desire to leave the organization,
他们对于离开工作单位的念头 更加强烈了;
loss of faith.
他们失去了信念。
Why is there this discrepancy?
为什么会出现这样的差异?
It seems that we're doing a comparative evaluation.
貌似我们都在做一项评估。
"Compared to the victim,
“与受害者相比,
nothing really happened to me."
我并没受到什么实质影响。”
But that's not really the right question.
但问题不能这么问。
And support shouldn't be invisible
不能仅因为你受到的影响较小,
just because you're less affected.
就让你无从找到应有的支持。
Because we're all affected
正因为我们都受到了影响,
and we should all be supporting each other.
我们才更应该枝干相持。
We also found evidence of a social contagion.
我们还发现了 社交传播的迹象。
While 23 percent of participants told HR,
仅管有 23% 的参与者 告知了人力资源部,
more, 46 percent, told colleagues, usually someone on their team,
更多的参与者——占总数的 46% —— 选择告知同事,通常是同一团队的同事,
and 67 percent told someone outside of work.
而 67% 的参与者告知了 工作圈以外的人。
What this shows is that the negative consequences of the situation,
该数据表明: 如果有人被骚扰或被歧视,
where someone is harassed or discriminated against,
其负面后果的影响力
go far beyond the room.
将远不限于办公室内。
People take that story with them
人们将这类故事记在心头,
and that discontent grows as they tell more and more people,
不满情绪也会随着他们 向越来越多人讲述而增长,
and this has the real effect
而这就有了着实质性的影响:
that is almost certainly threatening your ability as an organization
公司自身保留与吸引 多元化优秀人才的能力
to retain and attract diverse and excellent candidates.
几乎必然会受到威胁。
So what do we do to stop this social contagion?
那么我们要如何阻止 这样的社交传播?
What do we do to reduce these barriers
我们要如何减少阻碍
and how do we provide support for witnesses and victims?
并为目击者与受害者 提供帮助支持?
How can we be better allies?
我们要如何成为 更合格的盟友?
And it's easier than you might think.
答案也许比你想象的要简单。
In my research, I've come across five particular things
在我的研究中,有这么五件事
that I think every organization can and should do
是我认为每个公司 在处理这类问题
to help tackle this issue
并营造更健康的职场环境时
and to build healthier workplaces.
能做且该做的事。
First, showcase your commitment.
第一,表决心。
If your leadership isn't repeatedly saying
如果你作为领导,不反复去强调
how important diversity and inclusion is to them,
多元与包容的重要性,
and living by example,
并以身作则,
no one is going to believe you.
就不会有人买你的帐。
An HR-driven campaign is insufficient.
一套以人力资源为主导的 主张方案尤为重要。
Your organization is a direct mirror of its leadership team,
公司组织架构直接反映 其领导层的状况,
and they need to be setting the tone.
领导层需要定调。
Second, train your managers.
第二,调教好你的经理人。
The main person who's likely to harass someone in your organization
公司组织架构里 最有可能骚扰他人的
is a manager.
就是经理人。
Now, why?
为什么呢?
Perhaps because power corrupts,
或许因为权力使人腐败,
or perhaps because we promote people into managerial roles
又或许因为我们 提拔员工至管理层岗位
because they're excellent at their jobs,
是鉴于他们出色的工作能力,
and we assume that they will pick up the people skills,
于是我们期望他们会将 为人处事的能力
pick up the management skills along the way.
连同经营管理能力 同时培养起来。
But then they don't.
但结果并非如此。
And this provides a fertile ground for harassment and discrimination
而这种不切实际的期望 伴随着糟糕的时间管理能力
with unrealistic expectations,
与糟糕的冲突管理能力,
with poor time management,
为骚扰事件与歧视事件
with poor conflict management skills.
提供了滋润的土壤。
Train your managers.
调教好你的经理人。
Third, we know from research on victims
第三,通过研究受害者,我们得知:
that without the ability to report anonymously,
如果不能匿名上报,
the fear of consequences is so overwhelming
那么对后果的恐惧之强烈
that most people will never report incidents.
会致使大多数人选择不上报。
We found the same was true for witnesses.
这一点对目击者也成立。
When we asked them directly, in our study,
在我们的研究中,我们直接询问:
whether organizations could do something
公司要怎么做
to improve the fact that they might report,
才能提高他们上报的意愿。
they said, number one that they could do better
他们都说,公司的首项改善措施
was allowing for witness anonymity.
就是允许目击者匿名。
Second was providing choices about who to report to.
其次是允许他们选择上报对象。
Perhaps shockingly,
或许很令人惊讶,
although managers are the most likely person
尽管经理人往往最可能是
to be perpetrating harassment or discrimination,
骚扰或歧视事件中的加害者,
in many organizations
但在许多公司中,
they're also supposed to be your first point of contact
他们同时也会是 恶劣事件发生后
when things go wrong.
你头一位要接触的人。
Now that's a major sticking point.
这可是关键的分歧点。
So being able to choose who you go to is crucial.
所以能慧眼识人相当重要。
Third, encouraging witness reporting.
第三,鼓励目击者报案。
Back to setting a tone in your organization,
又回到了给公司定调,
saying you can and should report things,
要强调大家都能够 也应该去报案,
and you can help stand up for each other.
强调大家都能够 挺身而出,互相帮助。
Fourth, even when you have all of this in place,
第四,即便刚刚提到的一切 都到位了,
most people will not speak to HR.
大多数人还是不会 向人力资源部开口。
We know this, because at Spot,
我们深知如此,因为在 Spot,
we though anonymity would solve everything.
我们认为匿名 解决不了一切问题。
It did not.
确实不能。
Anonymity is one piece of the puzzle.
匿名只是问题的一小部分。
Conducting surveys means that you go out to your employees,
主动进行意见调查 说明你对员工上心,
you don't wait for them to come to you.
别等到他们带着意见找上你。
And you ask everybody about how they feel
你还要主动询问每一个人的感受
about the health of inclusion and diversity efforts
询问他们对公司内部 包容与多元的程度
within the organization.
有什么感受。
And be specific.
要问得具体到位。
Ask people about specific incidents or specific things they've witnessed.
询问他们具体目击到的事件或事物。
Because just like in our survey,
正如我们研究所示,
if you ask people directly
如果你单刀直入地问,
if they have experienced harassment or discrimination,
是否经历过骚扰或歧视,
the default answer is no.
大家会本能地回答:没有。
But if you ask about specific experiences or specific behaviors,
但如果你问到了 具体的经历或具体的行为,
most people go, "Oh, yeah, I saw that the other week."
大部分人会说: “哦对,我之前看见过。”
So making sure you ask the right questions is crucial.
所以关键在于确保 以正确的方式提问。
Finally, and most importantly,
最后,也是最重要的一项,
research shows that one of the best ways to mitigate the bystander effect
调查表明,消除“旁观者效应” 最好的方式之一
is to build a shared social identity.
就是建立共有的社会身份。
It's not about policing each other,
这与相互监管无关,
it's not about calling each other out,
也与相互指责无关,
it's about being a cohesive unit.
这关乎在一个具有 凝聚力的团队中共处。
We are in this together.
我们是一个团队。
If you attack one of us,
如果你冒犯了我们中的一员,
you are attacking all of us.
你就冒犯了我们所有人。
Because wouldn't you want that?
难道你不希望如此吗?
Wouldn't you want someone to stand by you if something negative happens?
难道在糟糕的事情发生时, 你不希望获得他人的支持吗?
We're all, hopefully, collectively building an organization
照理说,我们所有人 都在协作共建一个
that is stronger and healthier and more diverse and inclusive.
更强大、更健全、更多元, 且更包容的组织架构。
Without my allies, I wouldn't be here.
没有盟友,我就不会来到这里。
When I was first targeted with inappropriate behavior at work,
在我第一次成为职场 不正当行为的受害者时,
I fell into a depression,
我陷入了抑郁,
and I almost left academia altogether.
几乎彻底离开学术界。
Without a few people who stood by me,
如果没有当时那些伴我左右的人,
I wouldn't be on this stage right now.
我现在就不会站在这个演讲台上。
And I wish I had a happy ending for you.
我也希望故事能有 一个圆满的结尾。
But unfortunately, these individuals are still at it.
但很不幸, 这类事件依然存在。
You see, in organizational structures where colleagues work in dispersed ways,
要知道,在同一个组织架构下, 如果共事的人们彼此疏离,
where it's difficult to know who even to report to,
如果想要了解上报途径都非易事,
never mind what the consequences might be,
那么无论面临什么样的制裁,
these kinds of behaviors are most likely to flourish for longer.
这类令人不齿的行为 依然很可能继续存在。
But that doesn't stop me from trying to stop it.
但这断绝不了我 试图将其断绝的决心。
And I can tell you one thing --
有一点我很确定——
that over the past couple of years of my research,
在我过去几年的研究中,
I have found that there have been so many positive changes.
我看到了许多积极的转变。
Changes in legislation,
立法上的转变、
changes in attitudes,
态度上的转变,
and organizations are finally taking these issues seriously.
而且各个组织终于开始 重视这些问题了。
I swear, the time of the harassers and the bullies and the discriminators
我发誓,那些骚扰者、 霸凌者、歧视者的好日子
is coming to an end.
就要到头了。
Thank you.
谢谢。
(Applause)
(掌声)