我们正在干扰鱼类奇怪的性生活吗? Marah J. Hardt: Are we interrupting the kinky sex lives of fish?

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演员: Marah J. Hardt


台词
Right now,
此时此刻,
beneath a shimmering blue sea,
在波光粼粼的蓝色海面下,
millions of fish are having sex.
成千上万的鱼儿正在交配。
(Cheers)
(欢呼)
And the way they're doing it and strategies they're using
而它们交配的方式和策略
looks nothing like what we see on land.
跟我们在陆地上看到的完全不同。
Take parrotfish.
就拿鹦嘴鱼来说,
In this species, all fish are born female,
这种鱼刚孵化出来时全都是雌性,
and they look like this.
它们看起来长这样。
Then later in life,
而长大点后,
she can transition into a male and she'll look like this.
她能变成雄性,并且长成这样。
But it's not just a spectacular wardrobe change.
但她不仅仅是在外观上改头换面。
Her body can reabsorb her ovaries and grow testes in their place.
她的身体能重新吸收自己的卵巢, 并且在同样的地方长出睾丸。
In just a few weeks,
几周之后,
she'll go from making eggs to producing sperm.
她就从产卵变成了射精。
It's pretty impressive,
这种行为令人印象非常深刻,
and in the ocean it's also pretty common.
但在大海中却也非常常见。
In fact, I bet nearly all of you have at some point had a seafood dish
事实上,我敢说几乎你们所有人 都或多或少曾经吃过某种
made up of an individual that started life as one sex
生下来是一种性别,
and transitioned to another.
后来又变成另一性别的海鲜。
Oysters?
牡蛎?
Grouper?
石斑鱼?
Shrimp?
虾?
Seeing some heads nodding, yeah.
看到一些人在点头,是吧。
But not all fish that change sex start as females.
但不是所有会变性的鱼类 一孵化出来就都是雌性。
Those clown fish we know from "Finding Nemo"?
比如说《海底总动员》里的小丑鱼?
They're all born male.
它们一孵化出来就全是雄性。
So in the real world,
所以在真实的世界里,
when Nemo's mother died,
当尼莫的妈妈死去后,
Nemo's dad Marlin would have transitioned into Marlene --
尼莫的爸爸马林会变成玛琳——
(Laughter)
(笑声)
and Nemo would have likely mated with his father turned mother.
而尼莫则很有可能会与 变成了妈妈的爸爸交配。
(Laughter)
(笑声)
You can see --
你可以看到——
(Laughter)
(笑声)
Yeah.
是的。
You can see why Pixar
你可以看到为什么皮克斯动画
took a little creative license with the plotline, right?
在主要情节上做了些创意突破,是吧?
(Laughter)
(笑声)
So sex change in the ocean can happen in either direction
因此大海中的性别转换是双向的,
and sometimes even back and forth,
有时甚至是反反复复的,
and that's just one of the many amazing strategies animals use
而这只是海洋中的动物用于繁殖的
to reproduce in the ocean.
众多策略之一。
And trust me when I say
并且请相信我,这还只是它们
it's one of the least surprising.
最不令人惊讶的行为之一。
Sex in the sea is fascinating,
海中的性事是非常有趣的,
and it's also really important,
并且也很重要,
and not just to nerdy marine biologists like me
这不仅是对像我这样痴迷于
who are obsessed with understanding these salty affairs.
了解这些闲事的海洋生物学家而言,
It matters for all of us.
而且事关我们所有人。
Today, we depend on wild caught fish
今天,我们要依赖捕捉野生鱼类
to help feed over two billion people
来养活这个星球上
on the planet.
超过 20 亿的人类。
We need millions of oysters and corals to build the giant reefs
我们需要数以百万计的牡蛎和珊瑚
that protect our shorelines from rising seas and storms.
来建造出保护我们的海岸线 不受上升的海洋和风暴侵袭的礁体。
We depend on medicines that are found in marine animals to fight cancer
我们依赖从海洋动物中发现的药物
and other diseases.
来治疗癌症和其它疾病。
And for many of us,
对我们许多人来说,
the diversity and beauty of the oceans is where we turn for recreation
海洋的多样性和美丽使我们得以休闲
and relaxation and our cultural heritage.
和放松,它还是我们的文化遗产。
In order for us to continue to benefit from the abundance
为了能让我们继续从海洋生物
that ocean life provides,
所提供的多样性中获利,
the fish and coral and shrimp of today
必须要让今天的鱼类、珊瑚和虾
have to be able to make fish and shrimp and coral for tomorrow.
在明天还能产出鱼类、珊瑚和虾。
To do that, they have to have lots and lots of sex.
为此,它们需要不停的交配。
And until recently,
而直到不久之前,
we really didn't know how sex happened in the sea.
我们都还不知道 大海中的交配是如何发生的,
It's pretty hard to study.
因为很难去研究它。
But thanks to new science and technology,
但是受益于新的科学技术,
we now know so much more than even just a few years ago,
我们知道的已经比几年前多得多了,
and these new discoveries are showing two things.
这些新的发现,表明了两件事。
First, sex in the sea is really funky.
首先,海洋中的交配真的很特别。
Second, our actions are wreaking havoc on the sex lives of everything
其次,我们的活动正在对 从虾类到鲑鱼一切海洋动物的交配
from shrimp to salmon.
造成重大破坏。
I know. It can be hard to believe.
我知道,这可能令人难以置信。
So today, I'm going to share a few details about how animals do it in the deep,
所以今天,我将分享一些它们 在深海中如何交配的细节,
how we may be interrupting these intimate affairs
以及我们会如何干扰到这些亲密行为
and what we can do to change that.
并如何去做出改变。
So, remember those sex-changing fish?
那么,还记得那些变性鱼吗?
In many places in the world,
在这个世界上的很多地方,
we have fishing rules that set a minimum catch size.
都有设定了最小捕捞 尺寸的捕鱼规则。
Fishers are not allowed to target tiny fish.
渔民不允许捕捞小鱼。
This allows baby fish to grow and reproduce before they're caught.
这可以让小鱼在被捕捞前 长大并进行繁殖。
That's a good thing.
这是一件好事。
So fishers go after the biggest fish.
因此渔民会捕捞最大的鱼。
But in parrotfish, for example, or any sex changer,
但举例来说,对于鹦嘴鱼 或任何会有性别转变的鱼,
targeting the biggest fish means that they're taking out all the males.
捕捞最大的鱼意味着 他们会捞走所有的雄性。
That makes it hard for a female fish
这就使得雌鱼很难
to find a mate
找到交配对象
or it forces her to change sex sooner
或者会迫使她在长到更小的尺寸时
at a smaller size.
就会变性。
Both of these things can result in fewer fish babies in the future.
这两点都会使得未来的 鱼宝宝变得更少。
In order for us to properly care for these species,
为了让我们恰当地照顾这些物种,
we have to know if they change sex,
我们必须知道它们是否变性,
how and when.
如何变以及何时变。
Only then can we create rules that can support these sexual strategies,
只有这样我们才能制定出 支持这些交配策略的规则,
such as setting a maximum size limit in addition to a minimum one.
比如除了设定最小捕捞尺寸以外, 再设定一个最大捕捞尺寸。
The challenge isn't that we can't think of these sex-friendly solutions.
但问题不在于我们想不出 这些有利于交配的解决方案。
The challenge is knowing which solutions to apply to which species,
问题是如何确定 每个物种所对应的方案,
because even animals we know really well
因为即便是那些我们非常熟悉的动物,
surprise us when it comes to their sex lives.
它们的交配方式都会令我们大吃一惊。
Take Maine lobster.
就拿缅因龙虾来说。
They don't look that romantic,
它们看起来不那么浪漫,
or that kinky.
或古怪。
They are both.
它们是两者相结合。
(Laughter)
(笑声)
During mating season,
在交配季节
female lobsters want to mate with the biggest, baddest males,
雌虾想要跟最大、最坏的雄虾交配,
but these guys are really aggressive,
但是这些雄虾有很强的攻击性,
and they'll attack any lobster that approaches, male or female.
它们会攻击任接近的龙虾, 不管是雄虾还是雌虾。
Meanwhile, the best time for her to mate with the male
同时,雌虾的最佳交配时间
is right after she's molted,
恰好是在她脱壳之后,
when she's lost her hard shell.
此时她失去了坚硬的外壳。
So she has to approach this aggressive guy in her most vulnerable state.
因此她必须在她最脆弱的时候 去接近极具攻击性的雄虾。
What's a girl to do?
女孩在这时会怎么做呢?
Her answer?
她的答案是?
Spray him in the face repeatedly with her urine.
反复地尿他一脸。
(Laughter)
(笑声)
Under the sea, pee is a very powerful love potion.
在大海里,尿液是 一剂强大的爱情魔药。
Conveniently, lobsters' bladders sit just above their brains,
非常方便的一点是 龙虾的膀胱就在大脑上,
and they have two nozzles under their eye stalks
并且在它们的眼柄下有两个喷嘴,
with which they can shoot their urine forward.
使它们可以将尿喷向前方。
So the female approaches the male's den
雌虾来到雄虾的窝边,
and as he charges out she lets loose a stream of urine
当雄虾冲出来时, 她喷出一股尿流,
and then gets the hell out of there.
然后离开这个倒霉的地方。
Only a few days of this daily dosing
她就是通过在短短几天之内
is all it takes for her scent to have a transformative effect.
重复这一行动,使她的气味 产生一个变化性的效果。
The male turns from an aggressive to a gentle lover.
雄虾从具有攻击性 变成一个温柔的爱人。
By the week's end, he invites her into his den.
一周后,他邀请她进到窝里,
After that, the sex is easy.
然后,交配就很容易发生了。
So how are we interrupting this kind of kinky courtship?
那么我们是如何打扰到 这种古怪的求爱行为的?
Well, the female's urine carries a critical chemical signal
雌虾的尿液携带一种关键的化学信号,
that works because it can pass through seawater
它能通过海水传递,
and lobsters have a smell receptor
而龙虾都有一个嗅觉感受器,
that can detect and receive the message.
可以发现和接受这些信息。
Climate change is making our oceans more acidic.
气候变化使得海水的酸性更强,
It's the result of too much carbon dioxide entering seawater.
这是海水中溶入太多二氧化碳的结果。
This changing chemistry could scramble that message,
这种变化的化学环境会扰乱信息,
or it could damage the lobsters' smell receptors.
或者破坏龙虾的嗅觉感受器。
Pollution from land can have similar impacts.
来自陆地的污染也会产生相似的影响。
Just imagine the consequence for that female
想像一下如果雌虾的爱情魔药失灵,
if her love potion should fail.
会对她产生什么样的后果。
These are the kinds of subtle but significant impacts we're having
这些都是我们对海洋生物的爱情生活
on the love lives of these marine life.
所产生的微妙, 但非常重要的影响。
And this is a species we know well:
而这还是一种我们非常熟悉的物种:
lobsters live near shore in the shallows.
龙虾生活在邻近海岸的浅滩。
Dive deeper, and sex gets even stranger.
海洋更深处, 动物的交配甚至会更奇怪。
Fanfin anglerfish live at about 3,000 feet below the surface
大洋长鳍角生活在海面下 3000 英尺
in the pitch-black waters,
漆黑一片的水域,
and the males are born without the ability to feed themselves.
它们中的雄性 生来就无法自己养活自己。
To survive, he has to find a female fast.
为了生存,他必须迅速找到一只雌鱼。
Meanwhile, the female,
同时,雌鱼
who is 10 times bigger than the male,
要比雄鱼大 10 倍,
10 times,
10 倍,
she lets out a very strong pheromone with which to attract mates to her.
她释放出非常强烈的信息素 去吸引交配对象。
So this tiny male is swimming through the black waters
这条小小的雄鱼游过漆黑一片的水域
smelling his way to a female,
寻着气味找到通向雌鱼的路,
and when he finds her,
当他找到她时,
he gives her a love bite.
他会给她来一个爱情之咬。
And this is when things get really weird.
此后,事情就变得不可思议了。
That love bite triggers a chemical reaction
他的爱情之咬会引发一个化学反应,
whereby his jawbone starts to disintegrate.
他的颚骨开始碎裂。
His face melts into her flesh,
他的面部融进她的身体,
and their two bodies start to fuse.
他俩的身体开始进行融合。
Their circulatory systems intwine,
他们的循环系统缠烧在一起,
and all his internal organs start to dissolve
他所有的内脏开始溶解,
except for his testes.
除了睾丸。
(Laughter)
(笑声)
His testes mature just fine and start producing sperm.
他的睾丸刚好成熟并开始产生精子。
In the end, he's basically a permanently attached
最终他基本上成了永久附属于雌鱼的
on-demand sperm factory for the female.
按需生产的精子工厂。
(Laughter)
(笑声)
It's a very efficient system,
这是一个非常高效的系统,
but this is not the kind of mating strategy
但不是那种我们在农场能够见到的
that we see on a farm, right?
交配策略,是吗?
I mean, this is weird.
我是说,这很不可思议。
It's really strange.
真的非常奇怪。
But if we don't know that these kinds of strategies exist
但是如果我们不知道这些策略的存在
or how they work,
或者它们是如何运行的,
we can't know what kind of impacts we may be having, even in the deep sea.
我们就无法了解我们的活动会带来 什么影响,即便它们是在深海中。
Just three years ago,
就在三年前,
we discovered a new species of deep sea octopus
我们发现了一种新的深海八爪鱼,
where the females lay their eggs on sponges attached to rocks
它们中的雌性将卵产在 附着在 2.5 英里深处的
that are over two and a half miles deep.
岩石上的海绵动物身上。
These rocks contain rare earth minerals,
这些岩石中含有稀土矿物,
and right now there are companies that are building bulldozers
如今有些公司正在建造推土机
that would be capable of mining the deep sea floor for those rocks.
用于在深海中开采这些岩石。
But the bulldozers would scrape up all the sponges
但是这些推土机会把所有 附着在上面的海绵动物刮下来,
and all the eggs with them.
并会殃及到上面的卵。
Knowingly, and in many cases unknowingly,
我们正在有意或者无意地
we are preventing successful sex and reproduction in the deep.
阻止深海中的成功交配和繁殖。
And let's be honest,
老实说,
dating and mating is hard enough without somebody coming in
即便全程都没有第三者出现和打扰,
and interrupting all the time, right?
相遇和交配都已经很艰难了,对吧?
I mean, we know this.
我想说,我们都懂。
So today, while I hope you will leave here
所以今天我希望你们能带着一些
with some excellent bar trivia on fish sex --
关于鱼类交配的美妙的冷知识回去。
(Laughter)
(笑声)
I also ask that you remember this:
我还想请你们记住:
we are all far more intimately connected with the oceans than we realize,
我们跟大海的联系远比 自己所意识到的要亲密得多,
no matter where we live.
不管我们是住在哪。
And this level of intimacy
而这种级别的亲密
requires a new kind of relationship with the ocean,
要求我们跟海洋建立一种新型关系,
one that recognizes and respects the enormous diversity of life
它承认并尊重生命的巨大多样性
and its limitations.
和局限性。
We can no longer think of the oceans
我们不能再认为海洋
as just something out there,
只是一个可有可无的存在,
because every day we depend on them for our food security,
因为我们每天都要依赖它 来保障我们的食品安全,
our own health and wellness,
我们的健康
and every other breath we take.
和我们的呼吸。
But it is a two-way relationship,
但它是一个双向的关系,
and the oceans can only continue to provide for us
如果想要海洋为我们持续提供利益,
if we in turn safeguard that fundamental force of life in the sea:
我们就必须保护好 海洋生物的基础力量:
sex and reproduction.
交配和繁殖。
So, like any relationship, we have to embrace some change
因此,就像任何关系一样, 我们也必须拥抱一些改变
for the partnership to work.
以便这种关系能顺利运行。
The next time you're thinking about having seafood,
下次你再想要吃海鲜的时候,
look for sustainably caught or farmed species
就选那些能可持续捕捞的 或者由人工养殖的种类,
that are local and low on the food chain.
这些都是本地物种, 并处于食物链底端。
These are animals like oysters, clams, mussels,
像牡蛎、蛤蚌、贻贝这些贝类,
small fish like mackerel.
以及马交鱼这样的小鱼。
These all reproduce like crazy,
它们都能疯狂的繁殖,
and with good management, they can handle a bit of fishing pressure.
如果管理得好, 它们能够顶住一些捕捞压力。
We can also rethink what we use to wash our bodies,
我们也要重新考虑一下用来洗澡、
clean our homes
清理屋子、
and care for our lawns.
以及除草的用品。
All of those chemicals eventually wash out to sea
所有这些化学物质都会冲入大海,
and disrupt the natural chemistry
并且会破坏海洋中的天然
of the ocean.
化学环境。
Industry also has to play its part
而工业领域也需要参与其中
and take a precautionary approach,
并且采取预防性措施,
protecting sexual activity where we know it exists
去保护那些我们已知的交配活动,
and preventing harm in the cases where we just don't yet know enough,
对于我们了解有限之处, 像是藏在深海的活动,
like the deep sea.
则要避免造成侵害。
And in the communities where we live,
在我们居住的小区、
the places we work
我们工作的场所,
and the country in which we vote,
以及我们拥有投票权的国家,
we must take bold action on climate change now.
我们都必须从现在开始 针对气候变化采取大胆的行动。
(Audience: Yeah!)
(观众:耶!)
(Applause)
(掌声)
Thank you.
谢谢。
(Applause)
(掌声)