你所需要了解的人脸监控技术 Kade Crockford: What you need to know about face surveillance

上映日期: 0

语言:

影片类型:

导演:

演员: Kade Crockford


台词
How many of you have ever heard someone say
你们多少人曾听别人说过
privacy is dead?
隐私已死?
Raise your hand.
请举个手。
How many of you have heard someone say
你们多少人曾听别人说过
they don't care about their privacy because they don't have anything to hide?
他们不在乎他们的隐私 因为他们认为自己没什么好隐藏?
Go on.
继续举手。
(Laughter)
(笑声)
Now, how many of you use any kind of encryption software?
现在,你们多少人 使用过任何一种加密软件?
Raise your hand.
请举手。
Or a password to protect an online account?
或者用密码来保护网络账号?
Or curtains or blinds on your windows at home?
或者在家用窗帘 或百叶窗来遮挡你们的窗户?
(Laughter)
(笑声)
OK, so that's everyone, I think.
好了,我想所有人都举过手了。
(Laughter)
(笑声)
So why do you do these things?
那你们为什么会那样做呢?
My guess is,
我猜是
it's because you care about your privacy.
因为你们在乎自己的隐私。
The idea that privacy is dead is a myth.
隐私已死这个想法是个错误的。
The idea that people don't care about their privacy
人们觉得不在乎自己的隐私是因为
because "they have nothing to hide"
“他们没有什么好隐藏” 的想法,
or they've done nothing wrong
或者是他们没做错什么事。
is also a myth.
这些想法也是错误的看法。
I'm guessing that you would not want to publicly share on the internet,
我猜你们是不会想要 把自己的信息公开分享到网上
for the world to see,
让全世界看到,
all of your medical records.
比如所有你们自己的医疗报告,
Or your search histories from your phone or your computer.
或是你们手机或电脑上的浏览记录。
And I bet
而且我敢说,
that if the government wanted to put a chip in your brain
如果政府想要在 你的大脑里嵌入一个芯片
to transmit every one of your thoughts to a centralized government computer,
来将你的每一个想法 都传输到政府控制的电脑,
you would balk at that.
你一定会迟疑。
(Laughter)
(笑声)
That's because you care about your privacy,
那是因为你和所有人一样
like every human being.
在乎自己的隐私。
So, our world has changed fast.
所以,我们的世界变化很快。
And today, there is understandably a lot of confusion
目前,可以理解大家都对隐私是什么,
about what privacy is and why it matters.
以及隐私为何重要感到困惑。
Privacy is not secrecy.
隐私不是秘密,
It's control.
它是控制。
I share information with my doctor about my body and my health,
我跟我的医生分享 关于我的身体和健康的信息,
expecting that she is not going to turn around
并期望她不会转身
and share that information with my parents,
将这些信息分享给我的爸妈,
or my boss or my kids.
或者我的老板,我的孩子。
That information is private, not secret.
那些信息是私人的,不是秘密。
I'm in control over how that information is shared.
我需要能控制这些信息 以及用何种方式分享出去。
You've probably heard people say that there's a fundamental tension
大家或许听别人说过, 隐私和安全之间
between privacy on the one hand
存在着一种根本上的
and safety on the other.
紧张关系。
But the technologies that advance our privacy
但是科技在保护我们隐私的同时
also advance our safety.
也在保护了我们的安全。
Think about fences, door locks,
想想围栏、门锁、
curtains on our windows, passwords,
我们的窗帘、密码,
encryption software.
加密软件。
All of these technologies
所有这些技术
simultaneously protect our privacy and our safety.
都在同时保护 我们的隐私和我们的安全。
Dragnet surveillance, on the other hand, protects neither.
而天网似的监控, 则两者都无法保护。
In recent years,
近年来,
the federal government tasked a group of experts
联邦政府要求一群专家
called The Privacy and Civil Liberties Oversight Board
组成隐私和公民自由监督委员会
with examining post-9/11 government surveillance programs,
来审查 911 事件后 实行的政府监控计划项目,
dragnet surveillance programs.
拖网监控计划。
Those experts could not find a single example
这些专家不能找到 任何一个例子证明
of that dragnet surveillance advancing any safety --
拖网监控计划可以加强安全——
didn't identify or stop a single terrorist attack.
它不能发现或者阻止一起恐怖袭击。
You know what that information was useful for, though?
然而你知道这些信息 可以用在哪里吗?
Helping NSA employees spy on their romantic interests.
可以帮助 NSA 的职员们 暗中监视他们喜欢的对象。
(Laughter)
(笑声)
(Audience: Wow.)
(观众:哇。)
Another example is closer to home.
另一个例子更贴近生活。
So millions of people across the United States and the world
全美国和全世界,成千上万的人们
are adopting so-called "smart home" devices,
都在使用所谓的 “智能居家” 设备,
like internet-connected surveillance cameras.
像联网的监控摄像头。
But we know that any technology connected to the internet
但是我们知道任何技术只要连上网
can be hacked.
都可以被入侵。
And so if a hacker
所以如果一个黑客
gets into your internet-connected surveillance camera at home,
侵入你在家里的联网监控摄像头,
they can watch you and your family coming and going,
他们就可以监看 你和你的家人的一举一动,
finding just the right time to strike.
找到合适的时间来闯入你的家门。
You know what can't be hacked remotely?
你知道什么不能被远程入侵吗?
Curtains.
窗帘。
(Laughter)
(笑声)
Fences.
围栏。
Door locks.
门锁。
(Laughter)
(笑声)
Privacy is not the enemy of safety.
隐私不是安全的敌人,
It is its guarantor.
它是安全的保障。
Nonetheless, we daily face a propaganda onslaught
然而, 我们每天都在 受到因为政府监控计划
telling us that we have to give up some privacy in exchange for safety
必须得放弃一部分的隐私 来换取安全的
through surveillance programs.
宣传轰炸。
Face surveillance is the most dangerous of these technologies.
脸部监控是其中最危险的一项技术。
There are two primary ways today governments use technologies like this.
如今政府用这些类似的技术 主要有两大用处,
One is face recognition.
一个是人脸识别,
That's to identify someone in an image.
那是通过图像来识别某人。
The second is face surveillance,
第二个是人脸监控,
which can be used in concert
会用在音乐会现场
with surveillance-camera networks and databases
搭配监控摄像头的网络平台和数据库
to create records of all people's public movements,
来记录所有人们在公共场合的举动、
habits and associations,
习惯和人际关系,
effectively creating a digital panopticon.
有效地创造了一个数字化的环形监狱。
This is a panopticon.
这就是个环形监狱。
It's a prison designed to allow a few guards in the center
设计这种监狱的目的 就是为了用较少的狱警
to monitor everything happening in the cells around the perimeter.
从中心就能监控四周的 牢房里所发生的一切。
The people in those prison cells can't see inside the guard tower,
在监狱牢房里的人们 看不见牢塔的内部,
but the guards can see into every inch of those cells.
但是狱警却可以 看清牢房里的每个角落。
The idea here
我这里的想法是,
is that if the people in those prison cells
如果在这些监狱牢房里的人们
know they're being watched all the time,
知道他们时时刻刻受到监视,
or could be,
或者是可能受到监视,
they'll behave accordingly.
他们将会表现出相应的行为。
Similarly, face surveillance enables a centralized authority --
同样地,人脸监控 让有集中权的机构——
in this case, the state --
这个例子里就是州政府——
to monitor the totality of human movement and association
能监控所有人在公共场所的一举一动
in public space.
与人际关系。
And here's what it looks like
在现实生活中看起来
in real life.
就是这个样子。
In this case, it's not a guard in a tower,
这个例子里,塔内有的不是狱警,
but rather a police analyst in a spy center.
而是间谍中心的警方分析员。
The prison expands beyond its walls,
这个监狱延伸到了围墙之外,
encompassing everyone,
困扰着所有人,
everywhere, all the time.
在任何地方、任何时候。
In a free society,
在一个自由的社会,
this should terrify us all.
这理应让我们所有人惊恐。
For decades now, we've watched cop shows
几十年来,我们所看的警匪剧
that push a narrative that says
主打的故事线是关于
technologies like face surveillance ultimately serve the public good.
像人脸监控这样的技术 最终都是对社会有益的。
But real life is not a cop drama.
但是现实生活不是一部警匪剧。
The bad guy didn't always do it,
坏人并不总是在做坏事,
the cops definitely aren't always the good guys
警察也不一定都是好人,
and the technology doesn't always work.
而且科技不一定一直有效工作。
Take the case of Steve Talley,
就拿斯蒂芬・泰利 (Steve Talley)的例子来说,
a financial analyst from Colorado.
一位来自科罗拉多州的财经分析师。
In 2015, Talley was arrested, and he was charged with bank robbery
在 2015 年,泰利被逮捕 并被控诉涉嫌银行抢劫案,
on the basis of an error in a facial recognition system.
指控的根据是人脸识别系统的故障。
Talley fought that case
泰利驳回了此案,
and he eventually was cleared of those charges,
并最终洗清了一切罪名,
but while he was being persecuted by the state,
但是在他被州政府追查的过程中,
he lost his house, his job and his kids.
他失去了他的房子、工作和孩子们。
Steve Talley's case is an example
斯蒂芬・泰利的案例是
of what can happen when the technology fails.
当科技故障时 带来后果一个例子。
But face surveillance is just as dangerous when it works as advertized.
但是人脸监控若能如宣传一样运作, 那么它的危险性非同小可。
Just consider how trivial it would be
想想看政府会多么轻易
for a government agency to put a surveillance camera
就能把一个监控摄像头安装在
outside a building where people meet for Alcoholics Anonymous meetings.
举办嗜酒者互戒协会的建筑外面。
They could connect that camera
他们可以将摄像头和
to a face-surveillance algorithm and a database,
人监控里的程序算法以及数据库连接,
press a button and sit back and collect
按一个键,然后坐等收集
a record of every person receiving treatment for alcoholism.
每个来接受戒酒治疗的人们的记录。
It would be just as easy for a government agency
政府部门也可以很容易地
to use this technology to automatically identify
使用这项技术来自动识别
every person who attended the Women's March
每一位曾参加过女权运动,
or a Black Lives Matter protest.
或者 “黑人的命也是命” 的游行。
Even the technology industry is aware of the gravity of this problem.
甚至科技行业也意识到 这个问题的严重性。
Microsoft's president Brad Smith has called on Congress to intervene.
微软主席布拉德・史密斯 (Brad Smith)曾呼吁国会去干预。
Google, for its part,
至于谷歌,
has publicly declined to ship a face surveillance product,
也公开拒绝推出人脸监控的技术产品,
in part because of these grave human and civil rights concerns.
一部分是出于 对人权和公民权利的担忧。
And that's a good thing.
这是件好事。
Because ultimately,
因为最终来说,
protecting our open society is much more important
保护我们开放的社会远比
than corporate profit.
企业利益重要得多。
The ACLU's nationwide campaign
美国公民自由权协会 (ACLU)的全国性活动
to get the government to pump the brakes
来促使政府终止
on the adoption of this dangerous technology
使用这项危险的技术,
has prompted reasonable questions from thoughtful people.
活动已经让许多深思熟虑的人们 提出很多合理的质疑。
What makes this technology in particular so dangerous?
什么使得这项技术变得如此的危险呢?
Why can't we just regulate it?
为什么我们不能立法约束它呢?
In short, why the alarm?
简而言之,为什么弄得人心惶惶?
Face surveillance is uniquely dangerous for two related reasons.
人脸监控格外的危险有以下 两个相关的原因。
One is the nature of the technology itself.
一个是这技术本身的自然属性。
And the second is that our system
第二个是我们的体制
fundamentally lacks the oversight and accountability mechanisms
从根本上缺乏监管和可靠性的机制
that would be necessary
有这些机制
to ensure it would not be abused in the government's hands.
才能保证它不会被政府滥用。
First, face surveillance enables a totalizing form of surveillance
首先,人脸监控使得 全方位的监控成为可能,
never before possible.
这是前所未有的。
Every single person's every visit to a friend's house,
每个人每次拜访朋友家,
a government office,
政府部门,
a house of worship,
教堂,
a Planned Parenthood,
计划生育协会,
a cannabis shop,
大麻店,
a strip club;
脱衣舞俱乐部;
every single person's public movements, habits and associations
每个人在公共场合的 行动、习惯和人际关系
documented and catalogued,
都会被记录和分类,
not on one day, but on every day,
不是一天,而是每天,
merely with the push of a button.
仅仅因一个按钮的触动。
This kind of totalizing mass surveillance
这种全方位大规模的监督
fundamentally threatens what it means to live in a free society.
从根本上危及 在一个自由社会生活的意义。
Our freedom of speech, freedom of association,
我们的言论自由,人际交往的自由,
freedom of religion,
宗教信仰自由,
freedom of the press,
新闻媒体自由,
our privacy,
我们的隐私,
our right to be left alone.
我们独处的权利。
You may be thinking,
你或许在想,
"OK, come on, but there are tons of ways the government can spy on us."
“好吧,但是政府 有千万种方法来监视我们。”
And yes, it's true,
是的,这是真的,
the government can track us through our cell phones,
政府可以通过我们的手机来追踪我们,
but if I want to go to get an abortion,
但,如果我想去堕胎,
or attend a political meeting,
或者是参加一政治会议,
or even just call in sick and play hooky and go to the beach ...
或者打电话请病假, 然后逃学去海滩玩……
(Laughter)
(笑声)
I can leave my phone at home.
我可以把我的手机放在家里,
I cannot leave my face at home.
但我不能把我的脸放置在家里。
And that brings me to my second primary concern:
而这引起了我的第二个担忧:
How we might meaningfully regulate this technology.
我们要如何有效地系统规范这项技术。
Today, if the government wants to know where I was last week,
今天,如果我们的政府 想要知道上周我在哪,
they can't just hop into a time machine and go back in time and follow me.
他们不能坐上时间穿梭机 倒回之前的时空来跟踪我。
And they also, the local police right now,
而如今的地方警察,
don't maintain any centralized system of tracking,
他们也没有任何集中式的追踪系统,
where they're cataloging every person's public movements all the time,
能够随时记录分析每个人的公共行为,
just in case that information some day becomes useful.
以防有一天这些信息变得有用。
Today, if the government wants to know where I was last week,
今天,如果政府想要知道我上周在哪,
or last month or last year,
或者上个月,去年,
they have to go to a judge, get a warrant
他们必须得拜访法官,获得搜查令
and then serve that warrant on my phone company,
然后拿着搜查令 来到我的手机运营公司,
which by the way, has a financial interest in protecting my privacy.
顺别说一句,那手机公司 有财务权益来保护我的隐私。
With face surveillance,
而人脸监控,
no such limitations exist.
就没有这些限制了。
This is technology that is 100 percent controlled by the government itself.
这是一项百分之百 由政府自主控制的技术。
So how would a warrant requirement work in this context?
所以在这情况下, 在要搜查令的时候会变成什么样呢?
Is the government going to go to a judge
政府部门会向法官获得搜查令,
and get a warrant,
然后把搜查令交给他们自己吗?
and then serve the warrant on themselves?
这就好比说我把我的日记本给你,
That would be like me giving you my diary,
说:“这儿,你可以永远拿着它,
and saying, "Here, you can hold on to this forever,
但你得等到我同意才可以阅读它。”
but you can't read it until I say it's OK."
那我们可以做什么呢?
So what can we do?
对政府使用人脸监控所带来的
The only answer to the threat
威胁的唯一答复是
posed by the government's use of face surveillance
否认政府有权来入侵破坏公众的信任,
is to deny the government the capacity to violate the public's trust,
通过拒绝给予政府权力
by denying the government the ability
来建立这些室内脸部监控网络。
to build these in-house face-surveillance networks.
这正是我们现在在做的事情。
And that's exactly what we're doing.
美国公民自由权协会是 全国性活动的一份子
The ACLU is part of a nationwide campaign
来阻止政府使用这项危险的技术。
to pump the brakes on the government's use of this dangerous technology.
我们已取得一些胜利,
We've already been successful,
从旧金山到马萨诸塞州萨默维尔市,
from San Francisco to Somerville, Massachusetts,
我们已经通过市政府对
we have passed municipal bans
政府使用这项技术的禁令。
on the government's use of this technology.
还有很多在马萨诸塞州
And plenty of other communities here in Massachusetts
以及全国各地的其他社区
and across the country
都在讨论类似的措施。
are debating similar measures.
有些人对我说这个运动注定会失败。
Some people have told me that this movement is bound to fail.
最终来说,
That ultimately,
他们说仅仅因为这项技术的存在,
merely because the technology exists,
它就会被各地政府部门
it will be deployed in every context
应用到各种情况中去。
by every government everywhere.
隐私已死,对吗?
Privacy is dead, right?
至少这个说法是如此,
So the narrative goes.
而我拒绝接受这一说法。
Well, I refuse to accept that narrative.
大家也应该拒绝它。
And you should, too.
我们不能让杰夫・贝索斯 (Jeff Bezos)或联邦调查局
We can't allow Jeff Bezos or the FBI
来决定 21 世纪我们的自由的界限。
to determine the boundaries of our freedoms in the 21st century.
如果我们生活在民主社会,
If we live in a democracy,
我们就是驾驶员,
we are in the driver's seat,
来引领我们共同的未来。
shaping our collective future.
我们现在正处于一个岔路口。
We are at a fork in the road right now.
我们可以像往常一样地工作,
We can either continue with business as usual,
允许政府使用这些未核查的技术,
allowing governments to adopt and deploy these technologies unchecked,
部署在我们生活的 社区里,街道上,学校中,
in our communities, our streets and our schools,
或者我们现在就可以大胆行动起来,
or we can take bold action now
按下暂停,阻止政府使用人脸监控,
to press pause on the government's use of face surveillance,
保护我们的隐私,
protect our privacy
并为所有人创造一个
and to build a safer, freer future
更加安全、自由的未来。
for all of us.
谢谢。
Thank you.
(掌声和欢呼)