土著语言的历史——以及如何复兴土著语言 Lindsay Morcom: A history of Indigenous languages -- and how to revitalize them

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演员: Lindsay Morcom


台词
Dene elder Paul Disain said,
老迪恩·保罗·迪森曾经说过:
"Our language and culture
“我们的语言和文化
is the window through which we see the world."
是我们看世界的窗户。”
And on Turtle Island,
在海龟岛,
what is now known as North America,
也就是现在被称为北美洲的地方,
there're so many unique and wonderful ways to see the world.
有很多独特且美好的 观察世界的方式。
As a person of Indigenous heritage,
作为土著遗产的一员,
I'm interested in learning Anishinaabemowin,
我对学习我的遗产语言,
which is my heritage language,
阿尼什纳比语(Anishinaabemowin) 很感兴趣,
because it lets me see the world through that window.
因为它就是我看世界的窗户。
It lets me connect with my family,
它将我与我的家庭,
my ancestors, my community, my culture.
我的祖先,我的社区 和我的文化联系起来。
And lets me think about how I can pass that on
它也让我思考该如何
to future generations.
将它传递给后代。
As a linguist,
作为一位语言学家,
I'm interested in how language functions generally.
我对语言的整体作用原理很感兴趣。
I can look at phonetics and phonology --
我可以研究语音学和音韵学——
speech sounds.
还有语音。
I can look at morphology, or the structure of words.
我可以研究形态学或是单词的结构。
I can look at syntax,
我可以研究句法规则,
which is the structure of sentences and phrases,
也就是句子和短语的结构,
to learn about how humans store language in our brains
从而了解人类怎样 将语言存储在我们的大脑中,
and how we use it to communicate with one another.
以及我们是怎样使用语言 来和彼此沟通交流的。
For example,
比如说,
Anishinaabemowin, like most Indigenous languages,
阿尼什纳比语,就像大多数土著语一样,
is what's called polysynthetic,
被称为多式综合语。
which means that there are very, very long words,
意思是,有些很长很长的单词
composed of little tiny pieces called morphemes.
是由简短的词素组成的。
So I can say, in Anishinaabemowin, "niwiisin," "I eat,"
所以我可以用阿尼什纳比语说 “niwiisin”,意思是“我在吃东西”,
which is one word.
这是一个词。
I can say "nimino-wiisin," "I eat well,"
我可以说“nimino-wiisin”, 意思是“我吃得很好”,
which is still one word.
这也是一个词。
I can say "nimino-naawakwe-wiisin," "I eat a good lunch,"
我可以说“nimino-naawakwe-wiisin”, 意思是“我午餐吃得很好”。
which is how many words in English?
这在英语中要用多少个单词?
Five words in English, a single word in Anishinaabemowin.
五个,在阿尼什纳比语中 只需要一个词来代替。
Now, I've got a bit of a quiz for you.
现在,我们来做个小测试。
In a one-word answer, what color is that slide?
用一个词来回答, 那张幻灯片是什么颜色的?
Audience: Green.
观众: 绿色。
Lindsay Morcom: What color is that slide?
林赛·莫克姆: 那张幻灯片是什么颜色的?
Audience: Green.
观众: 绿色。
LM: What color is that slide?
林赛·莫克姆: 那张幻灯片是什么颜色的?
Audience: Blue.
观众:蓝色。
LM: And what color is that slide?
林赛·莫克姆: 那张幻灯片是什么颜色的?
(Audience murmurs)
(观众窃窃私语)
Not trick questions, I promise.
这不是脑筋急转弯,我保证。
For you as English speakers,
对于你们说英语的人来说,
you saw two green slides and two blue slides.
你们看到了两张绿色幻灯片, 两张蓝色幻灯片。
But the way that we categorize colors varies across languages,
但是在不同语言中, 我们给颜色分类的方式是不一样的。
so if you had been Russian speakers,
所以如果你说俄语,
you would have seen two slides that were different shades of green,
你会看到两张有着 深浅不同的绿色的幻灯片。
one that was "goluboy," which is light blue,
还有一种是“goluboy“,也就是浅蓝色,
one that is "siniy," dark blue.
另一种是“siniy”,也就是深蓝色。
And those are seen as different colors.
它们被看作是不同的颜色。
If you were speakers of Anishinaabemowin,
如果你是说阿尼什纳比语的人,
you would have seen slides that were Ozhaawashkwaa
你会看到这些幻灯片是 “Ozhaawashkwaa”,
or Ozhaawashkozi, which means either green or blue.
或者是“Ozhaawashkozi”的, 意思是绿色或蓝色。
It's not that speakers don't see the colors,
这并不是说那些人 没有看到这些颜色的区别,
it's that the way they categorize them and the way that they understand shades
而是说他们给颜色分类 和理解颜色深浅的方式
is different.
是不同的。
At the same time,
同时,
there are universals in the ways that humans categorize color,
人类给颜色分类的方式 存在一些通用原则,
and that tells us about how human brains
这些原则告诉我们人类大脑
understand and express what they're seeing.
如何理解和表达他们所看到的事物。
Anishinaabemowin does another wonderful thing,
阿尼什纳比语还有一个奇妙之处,
which is animate, inanimate marking on all words.
那就是,每个词都存在 有生命或无生命的标志。
So it's not unlike how French and Spanish
所以有点类似法语或者西语,
mark all words as either masculine or feminine.
会给所有词标记阴阳性。
Anishinaabemowin and other Algonquian languages
阿尼什纳比语和其他阿尔贡金语
mark all words as either animate or inanimate.
会把所有词标记为有生命或者无生命。
The things that you would think to be animate are animate,
那些你认为是有生命的事物 就是有生命的词,
things that have a pulse: people, animals, growing plants.
比如那些有活力的事物: 人类,动物还有生长的植物。
But there are other things that are animate
但是也有其它一些有生命的词
that you might not guess, like rocks.
你可能猜不到,比如说石头。
Rocks are marked as animate,
石头在阿尼什纳比语中 是有生命的词,
and that tells us really interesting things about grammar,
这些体现了语法的有趣之处,
and it also tells us really interesting things
也体现了
about how Anishinaabemowin speakers
说阿尼什纳比语的人是怎样
relate to and understand the world around them.
联系和理解世界的。
Now, the sad part of that
然而令人遗憾的是,
is that Indigenous languages are in danger.
土著语言正面临即将消失的处境。
Indigenous languages that posses so much knowledge of culture,
土著语言蕴含了太多关于文化、
of history,
历史、
of ways to relate to one another,
人们如何与彼此联系,
of ways to relate to our environment.
以及与环境联系的知识。
Having been on this land since time immemorial,
土著语言自古以来 就存在于这片土地上,
these languages have developed here
这些语言在这里发展,
and they contain priceless environmental knowledge
同时也承载了许多 极其珍贵的有关环境的知识。
that helps us relate well to the land on which we live.
这些知识帮助我们 与脚下的土地建立了联系。
But they are, in fact, in danger.
然而事实上,这些语言的处境很危险。
The vast majority of Indigenous languages in North America
北美洲大部分土著语言
are considered endangered,
都被认为是濒危语言,
and those that are not endangered are vulnerable.
而即便是那些不濒危的语言, 也是极其脆弱的。
That is by design.
不过,这样的现状 是人们蓄意为之。
In our laws, in our policies,
我们的法律、政策,
in our houses of governance,
以及政府工作中,
there have been stated attempts
存在着一些
to eliminate Indigenous languages and cultures in this country.
使土著语言和文化 在这个国家消失的企图。
Duncan Campbell Scott
邓肯·坎贝尔·斯科特
was one of the architects of the residential school system.
是寄宿学校系统的一名创造者。
On tabling a bill that required mandatory residential school attendance
在 1920 年提出的 一项要求土著儿童
for Indigenous children in 1920, he said,
必须在寄宿学校上学的 法案中,他直言不讳:
"I want to get rid of the Indian problem.
“我想要摆脱印第安问题。
Our objective is to continue
我们要继续推进这个目标,
until there is not a single Indian in Canada
直到加拿大所有印第安人
that has not been absorbed into the body politic
都被这个国家的政体所吸收,
and there is no Indian question, and no Indian Department;
直到不存在印第安问题和印第安分部。
that is the whole object of this Bill."
这就是这项提案的全部目标。”
The atrocities that occurred in residential schools were documented.
在寄宿学校发生的恶劣行为 被记录了下来。
In 1907,
在 1907 年,
P.H. Bryce, who was a doctor and an expert in tuberculosis,
P. H. · 布莱斯, 一位医生兼结核病专家,
published a report that found that in some schools,
发布了一则报告。 他发现在一些学校,
25 percent of children had died from tuberculosis epidemics
25% 的孩子死于因学校卫生条件差
created by the conditions in the schools.
而引发的肺结核传染病。
In other schools, up to 75 percent of children had died.
而在其它学校,儿童死亡率高达 75%。
He was defunded by federal government
由于这一发现,
for his findings,
联邦政府撤回了给予他的研究资金,
forced into retirement in 1921,
他也被迫在 1921 年退休。
and in 1922, published his findings widely.
1922 年,他又广泛发布了他的发现。
And through that time,
而这一次,
Indigenous children were taken from their homes,
土著儿童被从他们的家里
taken from their communities
和社区带走,
and forced into church-run residential schools
并被迫送进教堂运营的寄宿学校。
where they suffered, in many cases,
在那里,许多儿童遭受了
serious emotional, physical and sexual abuse,
严重的情感和身体上的痛苦、性虐待,
and in all cases, cultural abuse,
以及文化虐待。
as these schools were designed
因为这些学校
to eliminate Indigenous language and culture.
就是为了消除 土著语言和文化而创建的。
The last residential school closed in 1996.
最后一个寄宿学校于 1996 年关闭。
Until that time, 150,000 children or more attended residential schools
直到那时,已有至少 15 万名儿童被送入了
at 139 institutions across the country.
遍布全国的 139 所寄宿学校。
In 2007,
在 2007 年,
the Indian Residential School Settlement Agreement came into effect.
《印第安寄宿学校和解协议》正式生效。
It's the largest class action lawsuit in Canadian history.
这是加拿大历史上最大的集体诉讼。
It set aside 60 million dollars
该协议拨款六千万美元,
for the establishment of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada.
用于建立“加拿大真相与和解委员会”(TRC)。
The TRC gifted us with the ability to hear survivor stories,
TRC 让我们得以倾听幸存者的故事,
to hear impacts on communities and families
去倾听那些对于家庭和社会 所造成的影响,
and to gain access to research
并展开相关的调查研究,
that explored the full effect of residential schools
以探寻寄宿学校
on Indigenous communities and on Canada as a whole.
对于土著社会乃至 整个加拿大的整体影响。
The TRC found that residential schools
TRC 发现寄宿学校
constituted what's called cultural genocide.
设立了所谓的文化种族灭绝计划。
They state that, "Physical genocide is the mass killing of the members
他们声称: “肉体上的种族灭绝是指
of a targeted group,
屠杀一个既定组群的成员;
biological genocide is the destruction of that group's reproductive capacity.
生物学上的种族灭绝是指 摧毁一个组群的繁殖能力;
And cultural genocide is the destruction of those structures and practices
而文化上的种族灭绝是指摧毁那些
that allow the group to continue as a group."
可以让组群被称为 一个组群的结构和实践。”
The stated goals of Duncan Campbell Scott.
邓肯·坎贝尔·斯科特所谓的目标,
So they find that it's cultural genocide,
实际上就是文化种族灭绝。
although as children's author
即使是作为儿童读物作者
and a great speaker David Bouchard points out,
兼伟大演讲家的大卫·布沙尔也指出:
when you build a building,
“当你建一栋楼时,
and you build a cemetery next to that building,
同时在楼的旁边建了一个墓地,
because you know the people going into that building are going to die,
因为你知道那些 住进大楼里的人终将死去,
what do you call that?
你把这种做法称做什么?”
The TRC also gifted us with 94 calls to action,
TRC 也赋予了我们 94 条采取行动的呼吁。
beacons that can lead the way forward as we work to reconciliation.
它们像灯塔一样照亮了 我们为和解而努力奋斗的路途。
Several of those pertain directly to language and culture.
其中一些呼吁 直接适用于语言和文化。
The TRC calls us to ensure adequate, funded education,
TRC 呼吁我们确保 能够实现充分和长期的教育,
including language and culture.
包括语言和文化方面;
To acknowledge Indigenous rights, including language rights.
承认土著民族的权利, 包括语言的权利;
To create an Aboriginal Languages Act
创立一个土著语言法案,
aimed at acknowledging and preserving Indigenous languages,
旨在承认和保护土著语言,
with attached funding.
并提供支持资金;
To create a position for an Aboriginal Languages Commissioner
为“土著语言会委员” 创建一个合理地位;
and to develop postsecondary language programs
发展高等教育的语言项目;
as well as to reclaim place names that have been changed
以及更改那些
through the course of colonization.
在殖民化历程中被改变了的地名。
At the same time as the Indian Residential School Settlement Agreement
在印第安寄宿学校和解协议
came into effect,
生效的同时,
the United Nations adopted
在 2007 年,
the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous People
联合国通过了
in 2007.
《联合国土著人民权利宣言》,
It states that Indigenous people have the right to establish and control
确立了土著人民
their own education systems and institutions
可以自行发展并控制 其教育系统和机构的权利,
providing education in their own languages,
并通过
in a manner appropriate to their cultural methods
适当的符合其文化惯例的教学方式,
of teaching and learning.
用自己的语言开展教育。
In 2007,
在 2007 年,
when that was brought into effect,
当这项权利宣言开始生效时,
four countries voted against it.
有四个国家投票表示反对,
They were the United States, New Zealand, Australia
分别是美国、新西兰、澳大利亚,
and Canada.
还有加拿大。
Canada adopted the United Nations
加拿大政府在 2010 年
Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous People in 2010.
才承认了《联合国土著人民权利宣言》,
And in 2015, the government promised to bring it into effect.
并于 2015 年 承诺宣言正式生效。
So how are we collectively going to respond?
那么我们应该如何 共同回应现状呢?
Here's the situation that we're in.
这是我们现在的处境:
Of the 60 currently spoken Indigenous languages in Canada,
在加拿大目前的 60 种土著语言中,
all but six are considered endangered by the United Nations.
除了六种,其余语言 都被联合国认定为濒危语言。
So, the six that aren't are Cree, Anishinaabemowin,
那六种语言分别为 克里语、阿尼什纳比语、
Stoney, Mi'kmaq,
斯通尼语、米克马赫语、
Dene and Inuktitut.
甸尼语和因纽特语。
And that sounds really dire.
这听起来很可怕,
But if you go on to the Atlas of the World's Languages in Danger
但如果你去 联合国教科文组织的网站上
through the UNESCO website,
看一看世界濒危语言的分布地图,
you'll see a little "r" right next to that language right there.
你会在这些语言的右边 发现一个小“r”。
That language is Mi'kmaq.
这种语言就是米克马赫语。
Mi'kmaq has undergone significant revitalization
米克马赫语经历了伟大的复兴,
because of the adoption of a self-government agreement
因为它签署了一份自治同意书,
that led to culture and language-based education,
可以让其拥有 以自身文化和语言为基础的教育。
and now there are Mi'kmaq children
现在米克马赫族的孩子们
who have Mi'kmaq as their first language.
以米克马赫语为其母语。
There's so much that we can do.
我们能做的事有很多。
These children are students
这些孩子们是马尼图林群岛上
in the Mnidoo Mnising Anishinabek Kinoomaage,
一所名为“Mnidoo Mnising Anishinabek Kinoomaage"的
an immersion school on Manitoulin island,
沉浸式学校的学生,
where they learn in Anishinaabemowin.
在那里他们可以学到阿尼什纳比语。
They arrived at school in junior kindergarten
他们上幼儿园中班的时候就入学了,
speaking very little, if any, Anishinaabemowin.
那时候他们几乎 完全不会说阿尼什纳比语。
And now, in grade three and grade four,
现在,他们升入小学三、四年级了,
they're testing at intermediate and fluent levels.
测试结果表明,他们的阿尼什纳比语 已经达到了中级或者流利的水平。
At the same time,
同时,
they have beautifully high self-esteem.
他们有非常强的自尊心。
They are proud to be Anishinaabe people,
他们对自己是 阿尼什纳比人感到骄傲,
and they have strong learning skills.
而且他们的学习能力很强。
Not all education has to be formal education either.
当然,并不是所有的教育 都要那么正式。
In our local community,
在当地的社区,
we have the Kingston Indigenous Language Nest.
我们有“金士顿土著语言安乐窝”,
KILN is an organization now,
现在已经是一个组织机构了,
but it started six years ago with passionate community members
但它却是 6 年前,由热心的社区居民
gathered around an elder's kitchen table.
围坐在一个长者家的餐桌前创立的。
Since then, we have created weekend learning experiences
从那时起,我们就开始了
aimed at multigenerational learning,
以多世代学习为目标的 周末学习计划,
where we focus on passing language and culture on to children.
专注于将语言和文化 传递给我们的孩子们。
We use traditional games, songs, foods and activities to do that.
我们利用传统游戏、 歌曲、食物和活动来达成目的。
We have classes
我们还在这里
at both the beginner and intermediate levels
开设了
offered right here.
初级和中级的课程。
We've partnered with school boards and libraries
我们与学校校董会 和图书馆展开合作,
to have resources and language in place in formal education.
旨在让学生们能够拥有 正规的学习资源和语言环境。
The possibilities are just endless,
可能性是无穷无尽的,
and I'm so grateful for the work that has been done
而我也非常感激 正在进行的这些工作,
to allow me to pass language and culture on to my son
让我可以把语言和文化 传递给我的儿子,
and to other children within our community.
还有我们社区里其他的孩子们。
We've developed a strong, beautiful, vibrant community as well,
我们也创建了一个团结、 美丽又充满活力的社区,
as a result of this shared effort.
这是大家共同努力的结果。
So what do we need moving forward?
那么接下来要做什么呢?
First of all, we need policy.
首先,我们需要政策支持。
We need enacted policy with attached funding
我们需要确立一个
that will ensure that Indigenous language
可以有一定资金支持,
is incorporated meaningfully into education,
以确保我们的土著语言以有意义的方式 被纳入教育体系中的政策,
both on and off reserve.
无论是在保护区内还是保护区外。
On reserve, education is funded at significantly lower levels
在保护区内的教育资助
than it is off reserve.
应该大幅度低于保护区外的资助。
And off reserve,
在保护区外,
Indigenous language education is often neglected,
土著语言教育经常被忽视,
because people assume
因为人们认为,
that Indigenous people are not present in provincial schools,
土著人民不会出现在省区的学校。
when actually, around 70 percent of Indigenous people in Canada today
但事实上,如今在加拿大, 约有 70% 的土著人
live off reserve.
是生活在保护区外的。
Those children have equal right to access their language and culture.
那些儿童同样享有接受 自己语言和文化教育的平等权利。
Beyond policy, we need support.
除政策外,我们也需要支持,
And that doesn't just mean financial support.
这不仅仅指的是金融方面的支持。
We need space where we can carry out activities,
我们需要可以开展活动、
classes and interaction with nonindigenous populations as well.
上课,还有与非土著人口互动的空间。
We need support
我们需要
that looks like people wanting to learn the language.
人们看起来是想要 学习土著语言的那种支持。
We need support where people talk about why these languages are important.
我们需要人们可以讨论 为什么这些语言很重要的那种支持。
And to achieve that, we need education.
为了达成这些,我们需要教育。
We need access to immersion education primarily,
我们最需要的是沉浸式教育,
as that is most certainly the most effective way
因为我们可以确定,
to ensure the transmission of Indigenous languages.
这是能确保土著语言传播的 最有效途径。
But we also need education in provincial schools,
但是我们也需要 在省区学校开展教育。
we need education for the nonindigenous populations
我们需要开展面向那些 非土著人口的教育,
so that we can come to a better mutual understanding
这样我们才能更好地彼此理解,
and move forward in a better way together.
更好地携手同行。
I have this quote hanging in a framed picture on my office wall.
我把这句引言贴在了 我办公室墙上的一幅画上,
It was a gift from a settler ally student that I taught a few years ago,
这是我以前教过的 一名移民学生支持者送我的礼物。
and it reminds me every day
它每天都在提醒我,
that we can achieve great things if we work together.
如果我们彼此合作, 就可以获得伟大的胜利。
But if we're going to talk about reconciliation,
但是如果谈到和解的话,
we need to acknowledge
我们需要认识到,
that a reconciliation that does not result
和解如果没有
in the survivance and continuation of Indigenous languages and cultures
使土著语言和文化 得以幸存和发展的话,
is no reconciliation at all.
那它根本不叫和解。
It is assimilation,
那叫做同化,
and it shouldn't be acceptable to any of us.
而且不应该被 我们中的任何人所接受。
But what we can do is look to the calls to action,
但是我们呼吁人们付出行动,
we can look to the United Nations Declaration
我们可以依靠
on the Rights of Indigenous People
《联合国土著人民权利宣言》。
and we can come to a mutual understanding
我们也可以相互理解,
that what we have,
理解我们现有的,
in terms of linguistic and cultural heritage
这个国家的土著人民
for Indigenous people in this country,
在语言学和文化方面的遗产
is worth saving.
是值得保存的。
Based on that, we can step forward,
以此为基础,我们可以
together,
一起向前迈进。
to ensure that Indigenous languages are passed on
我们要确保土著语言传承下去,
beyond 2050, beyond the next generation,
不只是到 2050 年, 不只是到下一代,
into the next seven generations.
而是往后的世世代代。
Miigwech. Niawen’kó:wa. Thank you.
Miigwech. Niawen’kó:wa. 谢谢!
(Applause)
(掌声)