一堵墙所带来的无形影响 Alexandra Auer: The intangible effects of walls

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演员: Alexandra Auer


台词
Humankind loves to build walls.
人类非常喜欢筑墙,
Have you ever noticed that?
你们注意到了吗?
We build walls for everything:
我们为了各种各样的原因筑墙:
for shelter, for protection, for privacy.
为了避风,为了庇护,为了隐私。
Over the past 70 years,
过去的 70 年里,
the number of barriers between countries has doubled.
国家之间的边界数量翻了一倍。
Right now, there are more walls than at the end of the Second World War,
目前,位于国家边界的墙 比世界第二大战结束时还多,
more than during the Cold War.
甚至超越了冷战时期。
Growing up in Germany,
我从小在德国长大,
the fall of the Berlin Wall always felt to me
对柏林墙的倒塌深有感触,
like the introduction of a new world, a world without barriers.
它对于我来说意味着一个 新世界的开始,一个没有边界的世界。
But since the attacks of 9/11,
但自从 911 袭击后,
the construction has experienced an extreme rise.
筑墙频率极速上升。
Since then, the amount has doubled,
自那以后,边界墙数量翻了一倍,
with about 30 new structures that were planned or built.
列入计划或已经完工的 大概就有 30 个。
Walls and fences are often built with the intention of security,
墙跟围栏通常是为了 起到保护作用才建的,
security from another group of people,
保护我们远离另一群人,
from crime, from illegal trades.
防止犯罪和非法交易。
But walls and fences only provide us with a feeling of security,
但墙跟围栏其实只能 让我们感觉到被保护,
which is different from real security.
这跟实际的安全是不同的。
Even though they might make us feel safe,
它们或许能让我们感到安全,
the structures themselves can't protect us.
但却保护不了我们。
Instead, they do something else:
相反的,它们起到了另一个作用:
they separate.
它们把我们隔离开来,
They create an us and a them.
它们创造了一个我们和一个他们,
They establish an enemy.
它们还树立了一个敌人。
Walls make us build a second wall in our head, a mental wall.
那些墙在我们的脑海中 创造了另一堵墙,一堵心理上的墙。
And those mental walls slowly make us lose sight
心理上的那堵墙使我们逐渐忘记,
of all the things we have in common with the people on the other side.
我们与墙对面那些人 拥有的所有共同点。
The other way around,
更可怕的是,
mental walls can grow so strong that they encourage us to build,
心理上的墙会越发牢固, 甚至促使我们
keep or strengthen physical walls.
继续建造并强化现实里的墙。
Physical and mental walls are closely interlinked,
现实跟心理上的墙是紧密联系着的,
and one almost always comes with the other.
拥有其中一堵,另一堵就随之而来。
It's a constant cycle:
这是一个持续不断的循环:
physical walls empower mental walls, and mental walls empower physical walls
现实中的墙强化心理上的墙, 心理上的墙强化现实中的墙。
until at one point one part falls away,
直到某一时刻,其中一堵倒塌了,
and the cycle is disrupted.
这个循环也就被打破了。
When the Berlin Wall was being built,
当柏林墙尚在建造的时候,
it was hard to tell who the wall was facing,
你看不出它是面向哪一边的,
because the people living around it identified as one.
因为它两边的人是被视为一体的。
There was no us and them.
那时候没有我们和他们,
There was no others.
也没有其他人。
During the time of separation,
当人们被分离之后,
both sides developed differently and formed individual identities.
两边的人都各自发展, 最后形成了两个独立的身份。
All of a sudden, there was an us and a them.
然后突然之间,本为一体的人 被分为了我们和他们。
A mental wall was built,
一堵心理上的墙被建起来了,
and when the Berlin Wall fell again in 1989,
然而当柏林墙在 1989 年被拆除时,
this mental wall in the head of the people stayed.
心理上的墙依旧 存留在大家的脑海里。
Eastern Germans had to be reintegrated into their own country,
那时候东德人需要重新融入 原本自己的国家,
and even though they didn't have to move places,
即使他们并没有真正搬过家,
many still today feel like they have never fully arrived.
许多人直至今日都还觉得 没有完完全全搬回去。
Those remaining effects of the mental wall are also measurable.
而且,那些心理上的墙 带来的影响是可测的。
A study from the Freie University of Berlin in 2005
柏林自由大学 2005 年的 一项研究显示,
shows that even 15 years after the reunification,
即使德国统一已经过去了 15 年,
Germans still believed that cities on the other side of the former wall
德国人仍然认为墙另一边的城市 离他们的距离
are further away than they really are.
比现实中的距离要远很多。
The interesting thing is that they found a link between political attitude
更有趣的是,人们的政治意见
and estimation of the distance.
与他们预测的距离也有联系。
The more a participant was against the German reunification,
一个人越反对德国统一,
the further away they estimated cities to be.
他们预测的距离也就越远。
It's the mental wall which keeps cities on the other side far away,
是那堵心理上的墙 把对面的城市隔开了,
and the higher and stronger this mental wall,
心理上的墙越高,越坚固,
the more difficult they seem to be reached.
对面那座城市就越遥不可及。
I tried to repeat this study
我尝试着复制了这个研究,
with a group of young Germans who grew up without the wall
但采访的是柏林墙倒塌后 出生的一群年轻人,
to see if these effects are still measurable nowadays.
想看看年轻一代有没有受到影响。
And the results show that this generation,
结果显示这一代人,
my generation,
我这一代,
is just kind of bad at geography in general --
只是单纯的地理不太好而已——
(Laughter)
(笑声)
East and West.
无论出生在哪一边。
But in our defense, this could be seen as an improvement, right?
但也可以解释为,这可以 被看作一个进步,不是吗?
We never experienced the actual wall.
我们从来没有经历过柏林墙,
This physical barrier was never able to make us build a mental wall
这意味着这堵现实中的墙 也就无法在我们脑海里
in the first place.
建立一堵心理上的墙。
I would love to take this as a serious indication
我很愿意相信这意味着,
that there could be a future without a mental wall dividing Germany,
德国的未来不会有一堵 心理上的墙把我们隔离开。
but I think we have to face reality:
可我们要面对现实,
this one wall could be disappearing,
这堵墙或许在消失,
but in the meanwhile, a billion others are constructed.
但有成千上万其他的墙 正在拔地而起。
One global trend we are currently experiencing
我们现在所经历的一个全球趋势,
is the rise of gated communities.
是越来越多的封闭团体开始出现。
And in a way, gated communities can be seen the same exact way as countries,
这些封闭的团体和 一个国家没有什么不同,
just on the small scale --
只不过规模较小罢了——
neighborhoods surrounded by walls and fences
一个小区被墙跟围栏围绕着,
to protect citizens from other citizens --
只为了防止其他市民 伤害里面的市民,
and the only difference is, it's by choice.
唯一不同的是,这是人们的选择。
But the physical and mental effects on the people living inside
可这样做对住在里面 和被隔离在外的人
and the people kept outside
在身体和心理上造成的影响
are the same,
都是一样的——
separating cities, neighborhoods
隔离了城市,街区,
and even playgrounds.
甚至游乐场。
In the spring of last year, I worked on a design project in Brussels
去年春天,我在布鲁塞尔的 两间小学进行了一个设计项目,
at two elementary schools where this was the case.
得到的正是这样的结果。
Both the schools share an entrance and the schoolyard.
两间学校共享着一个入口跟操场,
Both schools teach in Dutch.
他们都用荷兰语教学,
But one school is mainly visited by Belgian children,
但其中一间大多数学生 都是比利时本地的孩子,
and the other school, by immigrant children.
而另一间都是移民的孩子。
The schools are separated by walls and fences,
这两间学校被墙跟围栏隔离开来,
leaving the children no point of interaction
以至于两所学校的 学生没有地方交流,
other than this fence on the schoolyard that separates them.
除了隔着这堵在操场中 把他们分开的围栏。
When I started to work there,
当我刚开始在那工作时,
it made me sad to see children having to stand at a fence
我为眼前的景象感到悲哀, 小朋友要站在围栏边,
to talk to their friend on the other side.
才能与他们对面的朋友说话。
But what's even worse is that most of the children
但更可悲的是,大多数小朋友
will never get the opportunity to even make a friend on the other side.
这一生都没有机会 与对面的小孩交上朋友。
School should be the place where children, all children,
学校应该是一个让所有小孩
come together and learn --
都能聚到一起学习的地方——
learn from the teacher, but more importantly,
跟着他们的老师学习,但更重要的是,
learn from each other.
从对方身上学习。
And the more diversity, the more there is to learn.
他们之间存在越多的差异, 能学到的东西就越多。
In fact, school might be the only time in our lives
事实上,学校可能是 我们一生中唯一能让我们
where establishing a contact despite social differences is even possible.
和那些与自己拥有社会差异的人 进行交流的地方了。
Separating children during this time of their development
在孩子处于成长时期 就把他们隔离开,
will make integration extremely difficult,
会把未来的统一变得更难,
if not impossible.
甚至完全不可能。
And yet, somehow,
但不知道为什么,
I seem to be the only one having a problem with this fence in Brussels.
我似乎是整个布鲁塞尔 唯一一个对这堵墙有意见的人。
Most of the parents, teachers and children
大多数的家长、老师和孩子,
stopped seeing or at least questioning the structure.
已经开始无视, 或不再质问那堵墙的存在。
It's just how it is.
现实就是这样,
Nobody has ever seen it differently.
它对人们来说就只是一堵墙,
And people are in favor of it.
人们甚至支持它的存在。
I once asked a boy if he would like to play with the other side,
我有一次问一个小男孩, 他想不想和对面的人玩,
and he said, "No."
他说:“不。”
Then I asked if he would play with them if the fence wasn't there,
然后我问他, 如果没有这围栏,你会和他们玩吗?
and he said, "Probably."
他说:“或许吧,”
But then he quickly added that the fence should stay,
但他立马接着说, 这围栏不应该消失,
because the other side is mean and they never give back his ball.
因为对面的人都很凶, 扔过去的球他们从来都不还回来。
It's funny, because I talked to children from both sides,
我觉得有点好笑, 因为两边的小孩我都问了,
and everyone told me that the other side is mean
他们都说对面的人很凶,
because they never give back the ball.
理由都是他们不把球还回来。
The children on both sides dislike each other,
两边的小孩互相讨厌,
and there are regularly arguments breaking out at this fence,
甚至还经常在围栏边争吵,
which is also the main reason why people feel the need
这也是为什么很多人都认为,
for it to be there:
那围栏是必要的。
it protects the children from each other,
它能保护双方的孩子,
or at least their toys,
至少能保护他们的玩具,
and it prevents chaos.
和防止过分的争吵。
At some point, the children started to crawl beneath the fence
不知道什么时候开始, 小孩会从围栏下方爬过,
to get their ball back,
只为了把球拿回来。
and the reaction of the schools was to put these metal plates there.
学校采取的措施却是 拿这些金属板把缝隙封住了。
Now they climb over.
现在,小孩开始从上面翻越围栏了。
I don't know what came first in Brussels:
我不知道在布鲁塞尔, 哪堵墙是第一个出现的:
a mental wall that grew too strong that it made them build a physical fence,
是那堵迫使人们建立了 这围栏的心理上的墙,
or this fence that now emphasizes the social differences,
还是这堵象征着社会差异,
even on the schoolyard.
甚至连操场都不放过的围栏。
But what I did know when I started to work there
但我知道的是, 自从开始在那里工作后,
was that I wanted to change something about the situation.
我一直想改变现状,
I wanted to show both sides again how much they have in common.
我想让双方发现 他们拥有的那些共同点。
For children, this isn't very hard,
对于小孩子来说,这并不难,
because even though one schoolyard speaks Dutch
因为即使一边的操场说荷兰语,
and the other schoolyard, a mix of French, Turkish and Arabic,
另一边说着法语、 土耳其语和阿拉伯语,
they all speak the universal language of play.
他们都有一种共同语言,叫玩耍。
And it turned out the desire to play
结果就是他们想玩耍的心,
is a lot stronger than all the supposed differences between them.
远胜于那些存在于 他们之间那所谓的差异。
I installed different games at the fence,
我在围栏处放置了不同的游戏,
which turned it into an interface, a common ground,
把围栏变成了一个连接处, 一个共享的地方,
instead of a barrier.
而不是一个阻碍物。
And all of a sudden, children were drawing together,
然后突然之间, 那些小孩都开始聚在一起,
exchanging pencils
互换铅笔,
and talking on the phone.
然后通过电话聊天。
Especially the phones were a great success,
那些电话尤其的成功,
because they were so amazed
因为小朋友都觉得很有趣,
by the fact that they can hear the other side through this device
这个小玩具能让他们 听到对面的声音,
that they couldn't stop speaking.
所以大家都滔滔不绝。
In the case of an elementary school, parents play a very big role
对于一间小学来说, 父母们的参与
in shaping the everyday life and the environment of their children.
在塑造小孩的日常生活 与环境方面起着重要作用,
So I knew that if I wanted to make a difference,
所以我知道,如果我想改变现况,
I had to somehow show them, too, how much they have in common
我也要向他们展示出 他们与对面的家长
with the other side.
所拥有的共同点。
But for parents, this was a lot more difficult,
但对父母来说,这要困难得多,
because most of them speak different languages,
因为他们大多数都说着不同的语言,
work different jobs with different incomes,
做着不同的工作,有着不同的收入,
live in different social circles,
他们的社交圈子也不一样,
believe in different religions,
有着不同的信仰,
experience different cultures
经历着不一样的文化,
and share different values.
还拥有着不一样的三观。
And then there was me, a student,
而我作为一名学生,
different in all of these aspects again.
与他们在以上方面 也没有共同点。
So how could I show them
那么我应该怎样才能展示出
how much they have in common?
他们所拥有的共同点呢?
I chose not to convince them myself
我并没有自己去说服他们,
but by letting their own children do the talking.
而是选择了让他们的孩子来说话。
I designed a picture exhibition on the schoolyard
我在操场上组织了一场图片展览,
showing them their children playing together through the fence.
展示了他们的孩子隔着围栏 与对面的小朋友一起玩耍的场景。
At the end of this exhibition,
展览结束的时候,
I asked people to write down their thoughts, ideas and wishes
我让父母们把他们想法, 主意和愿望,
on these big wooden boxes,
写在了这些大木盒上,
and I labeled the boxes with, "What do you think?"
我在这些盒子写道: “你觉得呢?”
A lot of people wrote "Yes" on it.
很多人在下面写下了“是的”,
Yes, what?
“是的”,然后呢?
I never mentioned my opinion or an action that should follow,
我从来没有提起过自己的观点 或者指出他们应该要做什么,
so which question were they answering with yes?
所以他们回答的是哪个问题?
When I asked, they said yes, the fence should go.
我又问了父母们,他们说是的, 围栏应该要拆除,
Yes, we want to play with the other side.
是的,我们想与对面的人玩耍。
The pictures implied enough to answer a question
那些图片已经隐晦的提出了
that was never proposed.
那个我没有明确提出的问题。
People were seeing the absurdity of the situation again
他们发现了这个情况有多可笑,
and felt how unnecessary this fence is
这个围栏是那么的多余,
without me forcing an opinion on them.
而我从始至今都没有 把这个观点强加在他们身上。
The exhibition showed the two sides their similarities for once.
这个展览把双方的 共同点都展示了出来,
That day, there was no us and them,
那天不存在着我们和他们,
there was no others.
更没有其他人。
The mental wall started to crumble.
那堵心理上的墙开始瓦解,
I chose the word "crumbling,"
我选择了用“瓦解”这个词,
because breaking a mental wall is a long journey,
因为这个过程不是一瞬间发生的,
and breaking a mental wall can be a lot more difficult
把心理上的那堵墙完全移除很难,
than simply tearing down the physical one.
比摧毁现实中的一堵墙要难很多,
We have to challenge our opinion and beliefs
我们要不断的质疑我们的观点和信念,
and maybe even admit our own wrongs.
有时甚至还要承认自己的错误。
So what happened in Brussels was a big step,
所以在布鲁塞尔发生的事情 是一个很大的改进,
a step that has been taking generations in Germany.
这个改进在德国花了几代人的努力。
There are many examples from all over the world
世界上还有很多其他的范例,
telling the same story I experienced in Brussels and Germany,
和我在布鲁塞尔和德国经历的一样,
enough examples from which we could have learned.
这些例子足够让我们从中学习。
But still, we seek walls as solutions for problems that they cannot solve,
可我们还是选择筑墙 来解决墙并不能解决的问题,
because walls don't fight the root of our problem.
因为墙不能挖掘到问题的根源,
If anything, they reduce the symptoms.
它们最多只能缓解危机罢了。
So the next time you are planning to build a wall
所以下一次当你准备筑墙时,
or you are planning to support someone who wants to build a wall,
或者准备帮别人筑墙时,
I want you to remember the impact you are really having.
我希望你能想起 那堵墙能带来的后果。
Because, this simple structure will hardly create more security.
一堵墙的简单构造 并不能带来任何实际保护,
Instead, it will affect the people living with it every day,
却能影响墙内人的日常生活。
people who, despite the geographic border,
人类,虽然在地理上被隔离开来,
often share a lot of culture and values.
却共享着很多文化和价值。
For them, you are not building one wall but two,
对于他们来说,你筑建的 不是一堵而是两堵墙,
two walls which will take decades and generations to overcome again.
两堵需要花上一代又一代的努力 才能重新拆除的墙,
Thank you.
谢谢。
(Applause)
(掌声)