宽恕是如何创造出一个更公正的法律体系的? Martha Minow: How forgiveness can create a more just legal system

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演员: Martha Minow


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Would you ever forgive a person who kills a member of your family?
你会原谅一个杀害了 你家人的罪犯吗?
In September of 2019,
在 2019 年 9 月,
Dallas police officer Amber Guyger was sentenced for murder,
达拉斯警察安柏尔 · 盖格 (Amber Guyger)因谋杀被判刑,
and then the brother of the victim
紧接着受害者的兄弟
forgave her.
宽恕了她。
Brandt Jean was 18 years old,
当时布兰特 · 基恩 (Brandt Jean)18 岁,
and I joined the rest of the country watching on television in awe
而我和全国的观众在电视上见证了
at that act of grace.
他这仁慈之举,并深感敬佩。
But I also worried.
但我也担心,
I worried that people who are African American like Brandt Jean
我担心像布兰特 · 基恩 这样的非裔美国人
are expected to forgive more often than other people.
会比他人更频繁地 被期望去原谅。
And I worried that a white police officer like Amber Guyger
我也担心像安柏尔 · 盖格 这样的白人警员,
receives a lesser sentence
比起犯下同样过失杀人罪的人
than other people who commit wrongful killings.
会受到更轻的责罚。
But because I'm a law professor,
但因为我是一位法律学教授,
I also worried about the law itself.
我也担心法律本身。
The law leans so severely towards punishment these days
目前法律如此严重地倾向于惩罚,
that it's part of the problem.
这就是问题的一部分,
And that's what I want to talk about here.
而这便是我想在这里探讨的主题。
The powerful example of one individual's forgiveness
个人宽恕的有力案例
makes me worry that lawyers and officials too often overlook the tools
让我担心律师和官员经常会忽略
that law itself creates to allow forgiveness,
法律本身创造出来的 允许宽恕的工具,
when the principle should be the cornerstone of a thriving society.
而这条原则本应该是 一个繁荣社会的基石。
I worry that lawyers and officials do not adequately use the tools of forgiveness,
我担心律师和官员不能够 合理地利用宽恕的工具,
by which I mean letting go of justified grievance.
我的意思是放过了正当的申诉。
And those tools are many.
那样的工具有很多,
They include pardons, commutations, expungement,
包括赦免、减刑、消除犯罪记录、
bankruptcy for debt
债务抵押,
and the discretion that's held by police and prosecutors and judges.
以及警方、检察官和法官的酌情权。
But I also worry -- I worry a lot --
但我还是担心—— 我担心的事很多——
(Laughter)
(笑声)
I worry that these tools, when used, replicate the disparities,
我担心这些工具, 使用时会再现悬殊差距,
the inequities along the lines of race and class and other markers
即由种族、阶级和其他各种 划分优势、弱势的标记
of advantage and disadvantage.
而导致的不平等。
Biases or privileged access are at work
当美国总统赦免犯罪时,
when United States presidents pardon people charged with crimes.
偏见和特权也在起作用。
Historically, white people are pardoned four times as often
历史记录显示, 针对同样的罪行与惩罚,
as members of minority groups for the same crime, same sentence.
白人被豁免的概率是 其他少数群体的四倍。
Forgiveness between individuals is supported by every religious tradition,
人与人之间的宽恕 是被所有宗教传统、
every philosophic tradition.
所有哲学传所支持的。
And medical evidence now shows
而今医学证据显示,
the health benefits of letting go of grievances and resentments.
放下不满和仇恨对我们的健康有益。
As Nelson Mandela led South Africa's transition
正如曼德拉领导着南非
from apartheid to democracy,
从种族隔离走向民主时,
he explained,
他解释道,
"Resentment is like drinking a poison and hoping it will kill your enemies."
“仇恨就像是自己喝下毒药, 却希望它能杀死你的敌人。”
Law can remove the penalties for those who apologize and seek forgiveness.
法律能够为愿意道歉 并寻求宽恕者豁免刑罚。
For example, in 39 states in the United States
比如,在美国的 39 个州
and the District of Columbia,
以及哥伦比亚特区,
there are laws that allow medical professionals to apologize
有法律允许医务工作者
when something goes wrong
在出现问题时道歉,
and not fear that that statement could later be used against them
而不用害怕道歉的内容 在后续的损害诉讼中
in an action for damages.
被用作指控他们的不利证据。
More actively, bankruptcy law offers debtors, under some conditions,
更主动的是破产法, 在某些条件下会给负债人
the chance to start anew.
一个重新开始的机会。
Pardons and expungements sealing criminal records can, too.
赦免和消除犯罪记录亦如是。
I have been teaching law for almost 40 years, hard to believe,
不敢相信,我教了快 40 年的法律,
but recently, I realized
但最近,我才意识到,
that we don't teach law students about the tools of forgiveness
我们没有把法律体系内 有关宽恕的工具,
that are within the legal system,
教给法学生们,
and nor do law schools usually explore
法学院通常也不会探索
the potential for new avenues for forgiveness
法律能够采用或协助的
that law can adopt or assist.
潜在的宽恕新途径。
These are lost opportunities.
这些都是错失的机会,
These are lost obligations, even,
甚至可以说是错失的义务,
because the students that I teach
因为我教的学生
will become prosecutors, judges, governors, presidents.
将来会成为检察官、法官、州长、总统。
Barack Obama, my former student,
巴拉克 · 奥巴马(Barack Obama) 就是我以前的学生,
used his power as the President of the United States to give pardons.
他曾用身为美国总统的特权给予特赦,
That released several hundred people from prison after the law changed
从监狱里释放了数百人,
to provide shorter sentences for the same drug crimes
他们当初因毒品犯罪被定罪, 而法律修改后,
for which they had been convicted.
相对应的刑期已被缩短。
But if he hadn't used his pardon power, they would still be in prison.
如果他当时没有使用特赦权, 那么这些人至今仍将身处狱中。
Legal tools of forgiveness should be used more,
法律内宽恕的工具应当被更多使用,
but not without reason and not with bias.
但必须要有理由,且不带偏见。
A "New Yorker" cartoon shows a judge with a big nose and a big mustache
《纽约客》杂志有幅漫画, 一位大鼻子、大胡须的法官,
looking down at a defendant with the exact same nose
他向下看着的被告 也有和他一模一样的鼻子
and exact same mustache
和一模一样的胡须,
and says, "Obviously not guilty."
然后法官说,“很明显,无罪。”
(Laughter)
(笑声)
Forgiveness could undermine the commitment that law has
宽恕有可能会动摇法律的承诺:
to treat people the same under the same circumstances,
在同样的情况下, 一视同仁地对待所有人,
to apply rules evenly.
公正地应用法律条例。
In this age of resentment, mass incarceration,
在这个充满仇恨、大量监禁、
widespread consumer debt,
消费债务泛滥的时代,
we need more forgiveness, but we need a philosophy of forgiveness.
我们需要更多的宽恕, 但我们更需要宽恕的哲学。
We need to forgive fairly.
我们需要公平的宽恕。
Contrast the treatment globally of child soldiers
让我们将全世界儿童兵所受到的待遇
with the treatment of juvenile offenders in the United States.
和美国少年犯所受到的待遇对比。
International human rights condemn and punish adults
国际人权条例会谴责并惩罚那些
who involve children in armed conflict
让孩童涉入武装冲突的成人,
as those most responsible,
认为他们最该为此负责,
but treat the children themselves quite differently.
而对那些孩童本身的处置 则大为不同。
The International Criminal Court,
国际刑事法院
now with 122 member nations,
现在有 122 个成员国,
convicted Thomas Lubanga, warlord in the [Democratic Republic of the] Congo,
该法庭将刚果(民主共和国)的军阀 托马斯 · 卢班加(Thomas Lubanga)定罪,
for enlisting, recruiting and deploying children, teens, as soldiers.
因其征募、招募和部署 儿童和青少年从军。
Many nations commit to ensuring that people under the age of 15
许多国家致力于 确保 15 岁以下的人
do not become child soldiers,
不会成为儿童兵,
and most nations treat those who do become soldiers
而且大多数国家不会把那些
not as objects of punishment
已成为儿童兵的孩子作为惩罚对象,
but as people deserving a fresh start.
而是认为他们理应获得 重新开始的机会。
Compare and contrast how the United States treats juvenile offenders,
与之比较美国是怎么惩罚少年犯的,
where we severely punish minors,
我们会严厉惩罚未成年人,
often moving them to adult courts, even adult prisons.
经常会把他们送上成人法庭, 甚至成人的监狱。
And yet, like child soldiers,
然而就像儿童兵一样,
teens and children are drawn into violent activity in the United States
在美国,青少年和孩子被卷入暴力活动,
when there are few options,
是因为他们没有选择,
when they are threatened
他们受到威胁,
or when adults induce them with money or ideology.
或被成年人以金钱或意识形态引诱。
The rhetoric of innocence is resonant when we talk about child soldiers,
当我们谈论儿童兵时,关于他们的 天真无邪的辞藻总会引起共鸣,
but not when we talk about teen gang members in the United States.
但是当我们谈论美国 青少年帮派成员时却并非如此,
Yet in both settings, youth are caught in worlds that are made by adults,
但在两种情况下,年轻人 都被困在成年人制造的世界,
and forgiveness can offer both accountability and fresh starts.
而宽恕能让他们 担起责任,重新开始。
What if, instead, young people caught in criminal activity and violence
如果取而代之,因涉入 犯罪活动和暴力而被逮捕的年轻人
could have chances to accept responsibility
能有机会在学习与重建 自己的生活与社区的过程中
while learning and rebuilding their lives and their own communities?
去承担责任,那会怎样?
Legal frameworks inviting youth to describe their conduct
能够让年轻人叙述自己所作所为 的法律框架,
could also involve community members to hear and forgive.
也能让社区成员去倾听与原谅他们。
Called "restorative justice,"
这被称为“修复式司法” (restorative justice),
such efforts emphasize accountability and service
这些努力更强调的是责任和服务,
rather than punishment.
而非责罚。
Many schools in the United States have turned to use restorative justice methods
美国的许多学校已经 开始使用修复式司法的方式
to resolve conflicts and to prevent them,
来解决矛盾和防止冲突,
and to disrupt the school-to-prison pipeline.
从而瓦解从学校到监狱的路径。
Some American high schools have replaced automatic suspensions
有些美国高中已经 取消了自动停学措施,
with opportunities for victims to narrate their experiences
而是给受害者机会讲述他们的遭遇,
and for offenders to take responsibility for their actions.
也让加害者有机会为他们的行为负责。
As they describe their experiences and feelings about a theft
当他们在描述自己有关盗窃、
or hateful graffiti or a verbal or physical assault,
仇恨涂鸦、言语或肢体攻击 的经历和感受时,
the victims and offenders often express strong emotions.
受害者和加害者经常会情绪激动。
And other members of the community take turns
接着,其他的社区成员会轮流
describing the impact of the offense on them.
描述这些罪行对他们的影响。
The leader is often a student peer, who is trained to deescalate the conflict
谈话的领导者通常是同龄学生, 他们受过如何缓和冲突的训练,
and orchestrate a conversation about what the offender can do
并且能组织对话, 探讨加害者能做些什么
that would help the victim.
才能帮助受害者。
Together, they come to an agreement about how to move forward,
他们一同达成如何前进的共识,
what the wrongdoer can do to repair the injury
做错事的人知道该 做些什么去弥补伤害,
and what all could do to better avoid future conflicts.
而大家可以知道要怎样 才能避免未来的冲突。
Consider this example, recently in a publication.
比如说最近发布的这个案例:
A young woman named Mercedes M. transferred, in California,
一名位于加州,名叫梅赛德斯 · M 的年轻女性,
from one high school to another
由于在她原来的高中经常打架,
after she was so repeatedly suspended in her old high school
而被多次停学,
for getting into fights.
不得不转校。
And here in her new high school,
在她就读的新高中里,
two other young women accused her of lying
另外两名女生指责她撒谎,
and called her the b-word.
并用脏话(“婊子”)骂她。
A counselor came over and talked to her and earned enough trust
一位辅导员过来与她交谈, 并取得了她的信任,
that she acknowledged she had stolen the shoes of one of the other classmates.
她承认她偷了其中一位同学的鞋子。
Turns out, the three of them had known each other for a long time,
真相是,她们三个相识已久,
and they didn't know any other way to deal with each other
但是除了打架外,她们不知道
other than to fight.
如何与彼此相处。
The facilitator invited them to participate in a circle,
于是协调人邀请她们参加一次交流会,
a confidential conversation about what happened,
在保密环境下讨论所发生的事情。
and they agreed.
而她们同意参加。
And initially, each of them expressed a lot of emotion.
起初,她们每个人都情绪激动,
And then Mercedes apologized.
接着,梅赛德斯道歉了,
And she said she had stolen the shoes,
她说她确实偷了鞋子,
but she did so because she wanted to sell them
但她这样做是因为想卖掉它们,
and take the money to pay for a drug test
然后把钱用来支付妈妈的药检费。
so that her mother could show she was clean
这样她的妈妈就能证明清白,
and try to regain custody of two younger children
她就可能重新获得 两个年幼孩子的监护权,
who were then in state protective care.
他们此时正在接受 政府保护机构的看护。
The other girls heard this,
另外两个女孩听完这些,
saw Mercedes crying
看到梅赛德斯的眼泪,
and they hugged her.
她们拥抱了她。
They did not ask her to return what she'd stolen,
她们没有叫她归还偷走的东西,
but they did say they wanted a restart.
而是说她们想要重新开始。
They wanted a reason they could trust her.
她们想要重新信任她的理由。
Later, Mercedes explained
后来,梅赛德斯解释说,
that she was sure she would have been suspended
如果没有这次交流,
if they hadn't had this process.
她一定又会被停学。
And her high school has reduced suspensions by more than half
她的高中用这种修复式司法的方式
through the use of this kind of restorative justice method.
已经将停学人数减少了一半。
Restorative justice alternatives involve offenders and victims
修复式司法的选项 让加害者和受害者
in communicating in ways
能有更多机会去沟通,
that an adversarial and defensive process does not allow,
而这些沟通方式在 诉讼和辩护程序中是不允许的,
and it's become the go-to method
而它在诸如哥伦比亚特区 未成年人司法系统的地方,
in places like the District of Columbia juvenile justice system
以及类似洛杉矶青少年法庭的创新中
and innovations like Los Angeles's Teen Court.
已然成了一个首选方法。
If tuned to fairness,
如果为了追求公平,
forgiveness methods like bankruptcy would be available
类似破产法的宽恕方法
not only for the for-profit college that goes belly-up
不仅可以用于 濒临破产的盈利性大学,
but also for the students stuck with the loans;
也可以适用于那些 因贷款陷入困境的学生;
pardons would not be given to campaign contributors;
赦免令不应该只给予那些选举支持者,
and black men would no longer have 20 percent longer criminal sentences
黑人的刑期也不再会比白人长 20%,
than do white men,
而这些是由于法官 行使自由裁定权所致。
due to how judges exercise discretion.
广泛的宽恕 是避免这类偏见的一种方式,
Forgiveness across the board is one way to avoid such biases.
有时,当涉及到责罚和债务时,
Sometimes, a society just needs a reset
社会需要的只是重启。
when it comes to punishment and debt.
《圣经》呼吁要定期解除债务,
The Bible calls for periodic forgiveness of debts
释放囚犯,
and freeing prisoners,
而它最近启发了一场全球性运动,
and it recently helped to inspire a global movement.
教皇约翰保罗二世与摇滚巨星波诺,
Jubilee 2000 joined Pope John Paul II
还有超过 60 个国家参与的 Jubilee 2000。
and rock star Bono and over 60 nations
他们致力于呼吁取消 发展中国家的债务,
in an effort to seek the cancellation and succeed in canceling
并取得了成功。
the debt of developing countries,
最终,总计超过 1000 亿美元
amounting to over 100 billion dollars
的债务被取消,
of debt canceled,
使世界上贫困人口显著减少。
resulting in measurable reduction in poverty.
本着同样的理念, 有人借鉴了那些
In a similar spirit, there are people who are copying the techniques
商业买债公司的技巧,
of commercial debt collectors
这些公司花费几美分 就能购买 1 美元的债务,
who purchase debt for pennies on the dollar
然后通过追债获利。
and then seek to enforce it.
深夜电视节目主持人 约翰 · 奥利弗(John Oliver)
Late-night television host John Oliver partnered with a nonprofit group
与一家叫 RIP Medical Debt 的非盈利组织合作,
called RIP Medical Debt,
只花了六万美元,
and for only 60,000 dollars,
他们就购买了价值 1500 万美元的医疗债务,
they purchased 15 million dollars' worth of medical debt,
接着,他们将这些债务一笔勾销。
and then they forgave it.
(掌声)
(Applause)
那使得近 9000 人可以 重新开始他们的生活,
That allowed nearly 9,000 people to have a restart in their lives.
这种先例应能引起和鼓励 更多这样的行动。
This kind of precedent should trigger and encourage more such actions.
是时候重启了,
It's time for a reset,
想想大量的监禁,
given mass incarceration,
医疗和消费债务,
medical and consumer debt
还有那些因受到指控而深陷债务
and given indigent criminal defendants
的穷困被告们,
who are charged and put in debt
因为他们要支付自己的缓刑官,
because they're expected to pay for their own probation officers
以及自己的电子监控器。
and their own electronic monitors.
宽恕违法行为
Forgiving violations of law
或者待偿的借贷,
or promises to pay back loans
确实有风险。
does pose risks.
宽恕可能会鼓励更多的犯罪,
Forgiveness may encourage more violations.
经济学家们甚至为此起了名,
Economists even have a name for it.
他们称之为“道德风险 ”。
They call it "moral hazard."
违反移民法规的人可以得到赦免吗?
Should there be amnesty for immigration violations?
总统应该提出特赦来保护他自己,
Should a president offer pardons to protect himself
或是促使违法行为吗?
or to induce lawbreaking?
这些都是我们时代的难题,
These are tough questions for our time.
但是不断升级的仇恨 也有其自身的危害,
But escalating resentments hold their own dangers.
把不在其自身掌控范围的责任
So does attributing blame to individuals
归咎于个人也同样有其危害。
for circumstances largely outside their own control.
寻求法律上的宽恕 并不是在否认犯罪事实,
To ask how law may forgive is not to deny the fact of wrongdoing.
而是在拓展视野,
Rather, it's to widen the lens
能让我们窥见大局,
to enable glimpses of the larger patterns
从而找到走向未来的新选择,
and to enable new choices that can go forward
前提就是我们能既往不咎。
if we can wipe the slate clean.
谢谢。
Thank you.
(掌声)