结合土著知识与科学应对气候变化 Hindou Oumarou Ibrahim: Indigenous knowledge meets science to solve climate change

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演员: Hindou Oumarou Ibrahim


台词
I guess all of you have a smartphone or an iPhone,
我猜大家都有 智能手机或苹果手机,
and this morning, probably you checked on the weather,
今天早上, 你可能查看过天气预报,
if its going to be rainy to carry your umbrella,
如果要下雨,就带上雨伞,
if it is going to be sunny to use your sunglasses,
如果是晴天,就戴上太阳镜,
or if it is going to be cold to have an extra coat.
如果天变冷,就多穿件外套。
It's going to give you, sometime, good information and sometime not.
它有时会给你有用的信息, 而有时则不然。
Let me tell you,
我告诉大家,
my best app is my grandmother.
我最好的应用程序是我祖母。
(Laughter)
(笑声)
She's called Mamadda.
她叫玛玛阿达(Mamadda)。
She can tell you not only today's weather
她不但能告诉你今天的天气,
but she can predict the next 12 months,
而且能预测接下来 12 个月
if it's going to be a good rain season or not.
是否会是一个风调雨顺的季节。
She can tell you just by observing her environment,
她只需观察周围环境就能告诉你,
by observing the wind direction,
她观察风向,
the cloud position,
观察云的位置,
the bird migration,
观察鸟类的迁徙,
the size of fruits,
观察果实的大小,
the plant flowers.
观察植物花朵。
She can tell you by observing the behavior of her own cattle.
她只要观察家畜的举动就能告诉你。
That's how she knows better the weather and the ecosystem
这就是她能对居住一带的天气,
that she's living in.
和生态系统了如指掌的方法。
I'm coming from a pastoralist community
我来自于一个游牧族群,
who are cattle herders.
由牧牛人组成。
We are nomadic.
我们是游牧民族。
We move from one place to another one
我们从一个地方迁移到另一个地方
to find water and pasture.
寻找水源和牧草。
We can move up to a thousand kilometers, the size of California, within one year.
我们一年可以跨越一千公里, 那是横跨加州的距离。
And this life helps us to live in harmony with our ecosystem.
这种生活帮助我们 与生态系统和谐共处。
We understand each other.
我们彼此了解。
For us, the nature is our supermarket,
对我们而言,自然是我们的超市,
where we can collect our food,
我们可以从中获取食物,
our water.
水源。
It's our pharmacy where we can collect our medicinal plants.
大自然是我们的药房 提供所需要的草药。
But it's our school,
大自然是我们的学校,
where we can learn better how to protect it
我们学习去怎样更好保护它,
and how it can give us back what we need.
以及怎样才能让它给予我们的所需。
But with the climate change impact,
随着气候变化的影响,
we are experiencing a different impact.
我们正经历着一种不同的影响。
In my community,
在我的社区,
we have one of the top five fresh waters in Africa.
我们拥有非洲五大淡水水源之一。
It's Lake Chad.
它就是乍得湖。
When my mother was born,
在我妈妈出生时,
Lake Chad used to be about 25,000 kilometers square of water.
乍得湖曾经有大约 两万五千平方公里的水域。
When I was born, 30 years ago, it was 10,000 kilometers square.
到三十年前我出生时, 它的面积是一万平方公里。
And actually now,
而实际上到了现在,
it's about 1,200 kilometers square of water.
它只有约一千两百平方公里的水域。
Ninety percent of this water just evaporated, disappeared.
90% 的水就蒸发掉消失了。
And you have more than 40 million people
还有超过四千万人
living around this lake and depending on it.
环湖而居,赖以为生。
They are pastoralists.
他们有游牧民。
They are fishermen.
有渔民。
And they are farmers.
还有农民。
They do not depend on the end of the month's salary.
他们不需要每个月靠薪资生活。
They depend on the rainfall.
他们依靠雨水为生。
They depend on the crops that are growing
他们依靠种植的庄稼,
or the pasture for their cattle.
或牧牛所需的牧草。
The shrinking resources,
萎缩的资源,
you have many communities that are fighting to get access.
使更多社区为了抢占资源而争斗。
The first come is the first served.
先到先得。
The second have to fight unto death.
后来者则为此争斗得你死我活。
So climate change is impacting our environment
因此气候改变通过 改变我们的社会生活
by changing our social life,
正影响着我们的环境,
because the role of man and woman in this region, it's different.
因为在这个区域, 男人和女人的角色不同。
Man is supposed to feed his family,
男人应该养家糊口,
take care of his community,
照顾他的社区,
and if he cannot do that,
如果他无法做到,
his dignity is under threat.
他的尊严会受到威胁。
He cannot do anything else to pay it back.
他无法做其他事情去弥补。
So climate change takes our men far away from us.
所以气候变化把男性带去了远方,
That is the migration.
也就是移居。
They can migrate to a big city where they can stay for six or 12 months,
他们可以移居到 大城市住上一年半载,
where they get a job, they can send back money.
找到一份工作并寄钱回家。
If they didn't get it,
如果他们做不到,
they have to jump into the Mediterranean
他们便不得不去往地中海,
and migrate to Europe.
并且移居到欧洲。
Some of them die there, but none of them stop going.
他们中有些客死他乡, 但却没有令人却步。
Of course, it's sad for the hosting country,
作为东道国当然可悲,
who are developed countries,
那些发达国家,
who have to adapt to host the migrants coming.
必须适应接收移民的到来。
But how about those who are left behind,
但那些留下的人怎么办,
the women and the children who have to play the role of men,
妇女和儿童们 不得不扮演男人的角色,
the role of women,
女人的使命
who have to take care of the security,
变成了需要确保
of the food, of the health of the entire family,
整个家族里一家老小的
children and old people?
安全,温饱和健康?
So those women for me, they are my heroes,
所以对我来说, 那些妇女是我的英雄,
because they are innovators, they are solution makers,
因为她们会创新,会解决问题,
they are changing the little of the resources
她们正用剩余的资源,
into the big for the community.
让整个社区丰足起来。
So those are my people.
那就是我的人民。
So we use our indigenous people's traditional knowledge
我们运用土著人民的传统知识
to get better resilience to what we need to survive.
提高适应生存的能力。
Our knowledge is not only for our communities.
我们的知识不仅用于我们的社区。
It's to share with each and others who are living with us.
也被分享给和我们 居住在一起的其他人。
And indigenous peoples around the world
全球的土著居民,
are saving 80 percent of the world's biodiversity.
正在挽救 80% 的世界生物多样性。
That's the scientists who say that.
科学家也证实如此。
Indigenous peoples in the Amazon,
亚马逊流域的土著人
you can find the most diverse ecosystem, better than the national park.
拥有最多样化的生态系统, 甚至远好于国家公园里的系统。
The indigenous peoples from the Pacific,
太平洋的土著居民,
the grandma and the grandpa,
爷爷奶奶一辈人,
they know where to get food after the hurricane hits them.
他们知道在被飓风袭击后 去哪可以找到食物。
So the knowledge that our peoples know
因此我们的人们所掌握的知识
is helping us to survive and helping other peoples also to survive
帮助我们在气候变化影响中得以生存,
the climate change impact.
也帮助其他人民也得以生存。
The world is losing.
世界正在失去,
We lost already 60 percent of the species,
我们已经失去了 60% 的物种,
and it's increasing every day.
而且每天都在增加。
So one day, I took a scientist to my community.
有一天,我带了 一个科学家来到我的部落。
I said, you are giving the good weather information through the TV and radio,
我说,你们通过电视和广播 发布有用的气象信息,
but how about coming to my people?
但是可以亲自与我的人民分享吗?
And then they come,
然后他们来了,
they sit around,
人们围坐在他们身边,
and suddenly, as we are nomadic, we just start packing our stuff,
突然间,我们作为游牧人, 我们就开始打包物品,
and then they say, like, "Are we moving?"
接着他们问, “我们要搬到别处去吗?”
I'm like, "No, we are not moving. It's going to rain."
我说,“不,我们不搬走, 天要下雨了。”
And they're like, "Oh, there's no cloud. How do you know it's going to rain?"
而他们说,“噢,没有云。 你怎么知道要下雨?”
We're like, "Yeah, it's going to rain." We pack our stuff.
我们说,“耶,要下雨了。” 我们收拾行李。
Suddenly, heavy rain starts coming,
突然,大雨倾盆而至,
and we are seeing the scientist running around, hiding under trees
而我们看到科学家们 四散奔跑,树下躲雨
and protecting their stuff.
保护他们的随身物品。
We already packed ours.
我们早就打包好了。
(Laughter)
(笑声)
After the end of the rain, the serious discussion starts.
雨停了以后, 正式的讨论开始了。
They say, "How do you know that it's going to rain?"
他们说,“你怎么知道要下雨?”
We say, "Well, the old woman observed the insects
我们说,“好吧, 老一辈妇女注意到昆虫
taking the eggs inside their homes,
把虫卵往巢穴中移动,
and while the insect cannot talk or watch TV,
而昆虫不能讲话或看电视,
they know how to predict to protect their generations,
它们知道如何预测来保护下一代,
how to protect their food.
如何保护它们的食物。
So for us it's the sign that it's going to rain
因此,对我们来讲 就是在几个小时之内,
in at maximum a couple of hours."
一定会下雨的征兆。”
And then they say,
然后他们说,
well, we do have knowledge,
好吧,我们都有知识,
but we do not combine ecological knowledge and weather knowledge all together.
但我们没把生态学知识 和气象知识联系在一起。
So that's how I started working
这就是我如何开始
with meteorological scientists and my communities
同气象学家以及我的社区合作
to give better information to get peoples adapted to climate change.
带来更准确的信息 帮助人们适应气候变化。
I think, if we put together all the knowledge systems that we have --
我认为,如果我们能把 拥有的所有知识系统综合起来
science, technology,
科学、技术,
traditional knowledge --
传统知识——
we can give the best of us to protect our peoples,
我们能尽我们所能来保护人们,
to protect our planet,
保护地球,
to restore the ecosystem that we are losing.
重建我们正在消失的生态系统。
I did that in another way, also.
我也用另一种方式在做。
I used a tool that I really love a lot.
我使用一种我非常喜欢的工具。
It's called a 3D participatory mapping:
叫做三维参与式制图:
participatory, because it can bring women, men,
参与性因为它能集合妇女、男人,
youth, elders,
青年,老人,
all the intergenerational peoples.
所有年龄段的人。
Then they use science-based knowledge,
他们使用以科学为基础的知识,
and the community comes together, they build this map,
社区集合在一让起他们来绘图,
they figure out all the knowledge that we have
他们考证出所有我们掌握的知识
about where is our sacred forest, where is our water point,
有关那里是我们神圣的森林, 哪里是我们的水源地,
where is our corridor,
哪里是我们的走廊,
where is the place that we move during each season.
哪里是每个季节我们迁移的地方。
And these tools are amazing, because it's building capacity of women,
这些工具功能很强, 因为它塑造了女性的能力,
because in our communities
因为在我们这些社区
women and men cannot sit together.
妇女和男人不能坐在一起。
Men talk always, women just sitting there,
男人通常拥有话语权, 而女性只能在幕后
but in the back.
坐在那里。
They are not there to take any decision.
她们也不在那里做决定。
So after the men figure out all the knowledge,
因此,在男人们清点出所有知识,
we say, well, you call the women, "Come and have a look."
我们说,好,你可以 叫女人们,“来看一下。”
They say, "Yes, sure,"
他们说,“好的,当然,”
because they've already done the first work.
因为他们已经做了前面工作。
(Laughter)
(笑声)
When the women come,
当女人们来了,
and they look at the map, they're like, "Mm, no."
她们看到地图, 她们说,“嗯,不对。”
(Laughter)
(笑声)
"This is wrong.
“这里错了。
Here's where I collect the medicine. Here's where I collect the food.
这是我采集草药的地方。 这是我采集食物的地方。
Here's where I collect --"
这是我采集——”
So we changed the knowledge in the map,
于是我们修改了地图上的信息,
and we called the men.
然后叫来了男人。
Well, they think about what women say.
好,他们思考着女人们说的内容,
All of them shaking their heads.
都摇着头。
"They are right. They are right.
“她们是对的。她们是对的。
They are right."
她们是对的。”
So that's how we build the capacity of the women
这就是我们如何培养女性的能力,
in giving them a voice
给予她们发声的机会。
in this 3D participatory mapping,
在这个三维参与式制图中,
so women get the detailed knowledge
女性获得更加详细的知识
that can help the community to adapt.
以帮助社区来调整适应。
And man have the bigger picture knowledge.
男人拥有更广大视野的知识。
So when we put it together,
当我们综合在一起,
this map helps them to discuss
这地图帮助他们去讨论,
but to mitigate the conflict between the communities
并在社区之间调和冲突,
to access the resources,
去获取资源,
to share better these resources,
更好共享这些资源,
to restore it
去重建它,
and to manage it for the long term.
并从长远角度去管理它。
Our knowledge is very useful.
我们的知识非常有用。
Indigenous peoples' knowledge
土著居民的知识
are very crucial for our planet.
对于我们的地球也非常重要。
It's crucial for all the peoples.
对所有民族也至关重要。
Science knowledge was discovered 200 years ago,
科学知识发现于 200 年前,
technology 100 years ago,
科技出现在 100 年前,
but indigenous peoples' knowledge, it's thousands of years ago.
但土著居民的知识, 存在于几千年前。
So why we cannot put all of these together,
为什么我们不能把这些综合在一起,
combine those three knowledges
结合这三方面的知识
and give the better resilience
给那些受到气候变化影响的人
to the peoples who are getting the impact of climate change?
带来更好的恢复力?
And now it's not only the developing countries.
现在不仅是发展中国家。
It's the developed countries also.
发达国家也同样。
We saw the hurricane. We saw the flood around all the places.
我们看到飓风, 我们看到各个地方的洪水,
We saw the fire, even here in California.
我们看到火灾,甚至在加州这里。
So we need all this knowledge to come together.
我们需要所有这些知识集合起来。
We need the people in the center.
我们需要以人为中心。
And we need the decision makers to change,
我们需要决策者做出改变,
scientists tell them,
科学家告诉他们,
and we tell them,
我们告诉他们,
and we do have this knowledge.
我们的确有这样的知识。
We have 10 years to change it.
我们可以用十年来改变。
Ten years is nothing,
十年微不足道,
so we need to act all together
因此我们需要一起行动,
and we need to act right now.
我们需要现在就行动起来。
Thank you.
谢谢。
(Applause)
(掌声)