来,尽情梦想未来吧! Charlie Jane Anders: Go ahead, dream about the future

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演员: Charlie Jane Anders


台词
Every science fiction writer
每一位科幻作家
has a story about a time when the future arrived too soon.
都写过一篇未来 实现得太快的故事。
I have a lot of those stories.
我写过很多这样的故事。
Like, OK, for example:
比如说:
years ago, I was writing a story where the government
多年前,我正在写一个
starts using drones to kill people.
政府开始用无人机杀人的故事。
I thought that this was a really intense, futuristic idea,
我觉得这是个非常激越的、 超前的构想,
but by the time the story was published,
但是当故事发表时,
the government was already using drones to kill people.
政府已经在用无人机杀人了。
Our world is changing so fast,
我们的世界改变得太快,
and there's a kind of accelerating feedback loop
处在一个加速的反馈循环中,
where technological change and social change feed on each other.
其中科技变革和社会变化 会互相推动、增进。
When I was a kid in the 1980s,
1980 年代,当我还是小孩时,
we knew what the future was going to look like.
我们知道未来会是什么样。
It was going to be some version of "Judge Dredd" or "Blade Runner."
那应当是某种版本的 《超时空战警》或是《银翼杀手》,
It was going to be neon megacities and flying vehicles.
有充溢着霓虹灯的超级都市 和飞行的车辆。
But now, nobody knows what the world is going to look like
但如今,没有人知道 仅仅在几年之后,
even in just a couple years,
世界会变成什么模样。
and there are so many scary apparitions lurking on the horizon.
在未来的地平线上 潜伏着如此多可怕的魅影。
From climate catastrophe to authoritarianism,
从气候灾难到独裁统治,
everybody is obsessed with apocalypses,
每个人都醉心于世界末日,
even though the world ends all the time, and we keep going.
哪怕世界一直在走向终结, 而我们依旧勇往直前。
Don't be afraid to think about the future, to dream about the future,
不要害怕思考未来, 去大胆的梦想未来,
to write about the future.
书写未来。
I've found it really liberating and fun to do that.
我发现这是件非常好玩、 很能放飞自我的事。
It's a way of vaccinating yourself
这是一剂疫苗,
against the worst possible case of future shock.
能帮你抵御未来可能发生的 最糟糕的冲击。
It's also a source of empowerment,
这也是一种赋能的来源,
because you cannot prepare for something that you haven't already visualized.
因为你无法为某件 没有预想过的事情未雨绸缪。
But there's something that you need to know.
但有某件事你应当清楚。
You don't predict the future;
你不是在预测未来;
you imagine the future.
你是在想象未来。
So as a science fiction writer
作为一名科幻作家,
whose stories often take place years or even centuries from now,
我笔下的故事常常发生在 距今多年后,甚至若干世纪后,
I've found that people are really hungry for visions of the future
我发现人们渴求的是
that are both colorful and lived in,
多彩、繁荣的未来图景,
but I found that research on its own is not enough to get me there.
但我也发现,仅凭研究 无法让我创作出那样的作品。
Instead, I use a mixture of active dreaming
于是,我结合了积极梦想、
and awareness of cutting-edge trends in science and technology
对科学与技术前沿趋势的认识,
and also insight into human history.
以及对人类历史的洞察。
I think a lot about what I know of human nature
我对我所了解的人性 进行了大量思考,
and the way that people have responded in the past to huge changes
并反思了在过去人们对待巨变、
and upheavals and transformations.
颠覆与转变作何反应。
And I pair that with an attention to detail,
我将其与对细节的关注相结合,
because the details are where we live.
因为我们正是生活在细节之中。
We tell the story of our world through the tools we create
我们通过我们创造的工具 和居住的空间
and the spaces that we live in.
来描述周遭的世界。
And at this point, it's helpful to know a couple of terms
此刻,了解几个 科幻作家常用的术语
that science fiction writers use all of the time:
会大有帮助:
"future history" and "second-order effects."
“未来历史”和“二阶效应”。
Now, future history is basically just what it sounds like.
“未来历史”可以按字面意思理解,
It is a chronology of things that haven't happened yet,
它是还未发生的事件的年表,
like Robert A. Heinlein's famous story cycle,
比如罗伯特·海因莱因(Robert A. Heinlein's) 著名的故事循环,
which came with a detailed chart of upcoming events
附有一张未来事件的详细图表,
going up into the year 2100.
一直到 2100 年。
Or, for my most recent novel,
又比如我最近的一本小说,
I came up with a really complicated time line
我设计了一条特别复杂的时间线,
that goes all the way to the 33rd century
一直延续到第 33 世纪,
and ends with people living on another planet.
最后人们到了另一个星球上生活。
Meanwhile, a second-order effect is basically the kind of thing
而“二阶效应”指的是
that happens after the consequences of a new technology or a huge change.
一项新科技或是一次巨变 之后引发的那些事情。
There's a saying often attributed to writer and editor Frederik Pohl
有一句常被认为是出自作家兼编辑 弗雷德里克·珀尔(Frederik Pohl)的话:
that "A good science fiction story
“一个好的科幻故事
should predict not just the invention of the automobile,
不仅要预测汽车的发明,
but also the traffic jam."
还要预测交通堵塞。”
And speaking of traffic jams,
说到交通堵塞,
I spent a lot of time trying to picture the city of the future.
我花了大量时间 试图描绘未来的都市。
What's it like? What's it made of?
它是什么样子的? 是由什么组成的?
Who's it for?
是为了何人而建的?
I try to picture a green city with vertical farms
我试着设想一个 拥有垂直农场的绿色城市,
and structures that are partially grown rather than built
城市结构有部分不是修建的, 而是由生物生长而成的,
and walkways instead of streets,
只有人行道,没有马路,
because nobody gets around by car anymore --
因为已经没人开车出行了——
a city that lives and breathes.
一个活着的、呼吸着的城市。
And, you know, I kind of start by daydreaming the wildest stuff
我由我所能想象的
that I can possibly come up with,
最离奇的白日梦开始,
and then I go back into research mode,
然后回到研究模式,
and I try to make it as plausible as I can
试图通过结合未来主义都市、
by looking at a mixture of urban futurism, design porn
设计精品和科技猜想,
and technological speculation.
把它变得尽可能合理。
And then I go back, and I try to imagine what it would actually be like
然后我会回头,试图想象 住在那个城市里
to be inside that city.
会是一种什么样的体验。
So my process kind of begins and ends with imagination,
我的创作过程由想象开始, 以想象结束,
and it's like my imagination is two pieces of bread
就好比夹着“研究三明治”
in a research sandwich.
的那两片面包一样。
So as a storyteller, first and foremost,
作为故事的讲述者, 首先,
I try to live in the world through the eyes of my characters
我要以我笔下角色的视角 生活在那个世界里,
and try to see how they navigate their own personal challenges
并试图了解他们在 我所创造的空间背景中
in the context of the space that I've created.
是如何面对自身的挑战的。
What do they smell? What do they touch?
他们闻到了什么味道? 触摸了什么东西?
What's it like to fall in love inside a smart city?
在一个智能城市中谈恋爱 是种怎样的体验?
What do you see when you look out your window,
当你望向窗外时能看见什么
and does it depend on how the window's software interacts with your mood?
是否取决于窗户的软件 如何与你的情绪互动?
And finally, I ask myself how a future brilliant city
最后,我会问自己, 一个绚丽的未来都市
would ensure that nobody is homeless and nobody slips through the cracks.
如何保证没有人会无家可归, 没有犯罪分子成为漏网之鱼。
And here's where future history comes in handy,
这就是未来历史派上用场的地方,
because cities don't just spring up overnight like weeds.
因为城市不会像杂草一样 一夜之间突然拔地而起。
They arise and transform.
它们有崛起、转变的过程。
They bear the scars and ornaments of wars, migrations,
它们背负着战争、移民、 经济繁荣、文化觉醒
economic booms, cultural awakenings.
的伤痕与勋章。
A future city should have monuments, yeah,
一个未来城市应当有纪念碑,
but it should also have layers of past architecture,
但它也应当有一层层过去的建筑,
repurposed buildings
重新修葺的建筑,
and all of the signs of how we got to this place.
还有我们如何抵达此处的 所有的印记。
And then there's second-order effects,
然后还有二阶效应,
like how do things go wrong -- or right --
比如事情会如何以 出人意料的方式
in a way that nobody ever anticipated?
变坏——或者变好?
Like, if the walls of your apartment are made out of a kind of fungus
比如说,如果你的公寓墙壁
that can regrow itself to repair any damage,
是由一种可以通过再生 来修复任何损伤的菌类做成的,
what if people start eating the walls?
如果人们开始吃墙壁, 那该怎么办?
(Laughter)
(笑声)
Speaking of eating:
说到吃:
What kind of sewer system does the city of the future have?
未来的城市会有怎样的 下水道系统?
It's a trick question. There are no sewers.
这是道陷阱题。 未来都市并没有下水道。
There's something incredibly bizarre about the current system we have
美国目前的下水道系统
in the United States,
相当诡异的一点是,
where your waste gets flushed into a tunnel
你的排泄物会被冲进管道里,
to be mixed with rainwater and often dumped into the ocean.
和雨水混合在一起, 通常会被倾倒进海洋中。
Not to mention toilet paper.
更别提厕纸了。
A bunch of techies, led by Bill Gates,
目前,由比尔·盖茨率领的 一群科技人员
are trying to reinvent the toilet right now,
正在致力于重新发明马桶,
and it's possible that the toilet of the future
或许未来的厕所
could appear incredibly strange to someone living today.
对今天的人们来说 会显得非常奇怪。
So how does the history of the future, all of that trial and error,
那么未来的历史, 所有那些试错过程,
lead to a better way to go to the bathroom?
能如何引领更好的如厕方式?
There are companies right now
现在有公司
who are experimenting with a kind of cleaning wand
正在测试一种清洗喷头
that can substitute for toilet paper,
作为厕纸的替代品,
using compressed air or sanitizing sprays to clean you off.
它会使用压缩空气 或者消毒喷雾帮你进行清洁。
But what if those things looked more like flowers than technology?
但如果这些东西看起来 更像花朵,而不是科技呢?
What if your toilet could analyze your waste
如果你的马桶能分析你的排泄物,
and let you know if your microbiome might need a little tune-up?
让你知悉你体内的菌群 是否需要一点调理?
What if today's experiments with turning human waste into fuel
如果今天将人类排泄物 变成燃料的实验
leads to a smart battery that could help power your home?
能催生智能电池, 更好地为你的家供能呢?
But back to the city of the future.
但回到未来的城市。
How do people navigate the space?
人们是如何在空间中导航的?
If there's no streets, how do people even make sense of the geography?
如果没有街道, 人们究竟如何搞清地理位置?
I like to think of a place where there are spaces
我热衷于设想,在这个地方,
that are partially only in virtual reality
有部分空间仅存在于虚拟现实里,
that maybe you need special hardware to even discover.
你甚至需要特殊的硬件 才能发现它们。
Like for one story, I came up with a thing called "the cloudscape interface,"
比如说在一个故事里,我弄出了 一个叫做“云景界面”的东西,
which I described as a chrome spider that plugs into your head
我把它描述为一个用太阳穴接口
using temporal nodes.
插入你的脑袋的电镀蜘蛛。
No, that's not a picture of it, but it's a fun picture I took in a bar.
不,不是这张图,这只是 我在某个酒吧里拍的有趣的照片。
(Laughter)
(笑声)
And I got really carried away imagining the bars, restaurants, cafés
我会难以自拔地想象,
that you could only find your way inside
只有配备了正确的 增强现实(AR)设备
if you had the correct augmented reality hardware.
才能光顾的酒吧、餐厅、咖啡厅。
But again, second-order effects:
但其中同样存在着二阶效应:
in a world shaped by augmented reality,
在一个由增强现实塑造的世界里,
what kind of new communities will we have,
我们会有怎样的新型社区,
what kind of new crimes that we haven't even thought of yet?
又会面临哪些未曾想象的 新型犯罪?
OK, like, let's say that you and I are standing next to each other,
比如说,你和我肩并肩站着,
and you think that we're in a noisy sports bar,
你认为我们在一个 喧闹的体育酒吧里,
and I think we're in a highbrow salon
而我觉得我们在一个 高雅沙龙里,就着弦乐四重奏
with a string quartet talking about Baudrillard.
谈论鲍德里亚。(法国社会学家, 其理论涉及模拟、拟像、超现实)
I can't possibly imagine what might go wrong in that scenario.
我无法想象在这个情境下 会出现什么问题。
Like, it's just -- I'm sure it'll be fine.
我敢肯定一切都会迎刃而解。
And then there's social media.
然后还有社交媒体。
I can imagine some pretty frickin' dystopian scenarios
我能想象到一些 相当反乌托邦的情形,
where things like internet quizzes,
网络心理测试、
dating apps, horoscopes, bots,
约会应用、星座、聊天机器人
all combine to drag you down deeper and deeper rabbit holes
这些东西都结合在一起, 把你往糟糕的关系、更糟的政治
into bad relationships and worse politics.
的泥沼里越拖越深。
But then I think about the conversations that I've had
但我又想起
with people who work on AI,
和人工智能从业者的对话,
and what I always hear from them is that the smarter AI gets,
我总会听他们说, 人工智能变得越聪明,
the better it is at making connections.
它们就越会建立关系。
So maybe the social media of the future will be better.
所以或许未来的社交媒体 会变得更好。
Maybe it'll help us to form healthier, less destructive relationships.
或许它能帮我们建立更健康、 破坏性更小的关系。
Maybe we'll have devices that enable togetherness and serendipity.
或许我们的设备能促进 团结与际遇。
I really hope so.
我衷心希望如此。
And, you know, I like to think that if strong AI ever really exists,
我有时候会想, 如果真的存在强大的人工智能,
they'll probably enjoy our weird relationship drama
它们或许会享受 我们古怪的人际关系大戏,
the same way that you and I love to obsess about the "Real Housewives of Wherever."
就像你我热衷于 《真实主妇真人秀》一样。
And finally, there's medicine.
最后,还有医疗。
I think a lot about how developments in genetic medicine
我常常会想, 遗传医学的发展
could improve outcomes for people with cancer or dementia,
能如何改进癌症或 失智症患者的治疗结果,
and maybe one day, your hundredth birthday will be just another milestone
或许有朝一日,你的百岁生日 只不过标志着还有二三十年的
on the way to another two or three decades of healthy, active life.
健康、充满活力的生活在等着你。
Maybe the toilet of the future that I mentioned
或许我刚提到的未来的马桶
will improve health outcomes for a lot of people,
能改善很多人的健康,
including people in parts of the world
包括在世界上某些
where they don't have these complicated sewer systems that I mentioned.
没有复杂下水道系统的地方 生活的人们。
But also, as a transgender person,
另外,作为一名变性者,
I like to think: What if we make advances in understanding the endocrine system
我还乐意设想: 我们能否进一步理解内分泌系统,
that improve the options for trans people,
从而改善变性群体的选择,
the same way that hormones and surgeries expanded the options
就像荷尔蒙和变性手术
for the previous generation?
拓宽了上一代的选择那样?
So finally: basically, I'm here to tell you,
最后:其实,今天我想告诉各位的是,
people talk about the future
人们谈论未来时,
as though it's either going to be a technological wonderland
仿佛未来要么是高科技仙境,
or some kind of apocalyptic poop barbecue.
要么是让人不忍直视的世界末日。
(Laughter)
(笑声)
But the truth is, it's not going to be either of those things.
但事实是,未来不会是 其中任何一种情况。
It's going to be in the middle. It's going to be both. It's going to be everything.
它会是两者的折衷,它会两者皆是, 它会是所有一切可能。
The one thing we do know
我们唯一知道的是,
is that the future is going to be incredibly weird.
未来会非常奇怪。
Just think about how weird the early 21st century would appear
想想 21 世纪初期
to someone from the early 20th.
对 20 世纪初期的人来说 会显得多么古怪。
And, you know, there's a kind of logical fallacy that we all have
而我们都有某种逻辑误区,
where we expect the future to be an extension of the present.
我们期望未来会是现在的延伸。
Like, people in the 1980s
就像 1980 年代的人们
thought that the Soviet Union would still be around today.
认为苏联会存续到今日。
But the future is going to be much weirder than we could possibly dream of.
但未来会比我们所能想象的 更为光怪陆离。
But we can try.
不过我们可以尝试。
And I know that there are going to be scary, scary things,
我知道未来会有非常可怕的事情发生,
but there's also going to be wonders and saving graces.
但也会有奇迹,会有慰藉。
And the first step to finding your way forward
而找到前进道路的第一步,
is to let your imagination run free.
就是放飞你的想象力。
Thank you.
谢谢。
(Applause)
(掌声)