什么是“共振峰”?为什么歌剧演唱者需要它?——明 · 卢克 Ming Luke: What's a squillo, and why do opera singers need it?

上映日期: 0

语言:

影片类型:

导演:

演员: Ming Luke


台词
Gripped with vengeful passion,
满怀复仇的激情,
The Queen of the Night tears across the stage.
夜后狂奔着穿过舞台。
She begins to sing her titular aria,
她开始歌唱以她为名的咏叹调,
one of the most famous sections from Mozart’s beloved opera,
这是莫扎特脍炙人口的歌剧
"The Magic Flute."
《魔笛》中最著名的选段之一。
The orchestra fills the hall with music,
管弦乐队的音乐回荡在大厅,
but the queen’s voice soars above the instruments.
但夜后的歌声凌驾于乐器的演奏之上。
Its melody rings out across thousands of patrons,
歌声的旋律在数千名听众中回响,
reaching seats 40 meters away—
甚至能传达到 远在四十米以外的座位——
all without any assistance from a microphone.
完全没有借助麦克风。
How is it possible that this single voice can be heard so clearly,
在几十种乐器同时演奏的情况下,
above the strains of dozens of instruments?
为何能如此清晰地 听到这一人的歌声呢?
The answer lies in the physics of the human voice,
答案藏在人类声音的物理特性
and the carefully honed technique of an expert opera singer.
以及专业歌剧演唱家 精心锤炼的技巧中。
All the music in this opera house originates from the vibrations
歌剧院中的所有音乐
created by instruments—
都由乐器的振动产生——
whether it’s the strings of a violin or the vocal folds of a performer.
无论是小提琴的琴弦, 亦或是演唱者的声带。
These vibrations send waves into the air, which our brains interpret as sound.
这些振动将声波传递至空气中, 而我们的大脑将其识别为声音。
The frequency of these vibrations––
振动的频率——
specifically, the number of waves per second––
确切来说,每秒中的波数——
is how our brains determine the pitch of a single note.
就是大脑判定单个音符音高的依据。
But in fact, every note we hear
但实际上,我们听到的每个音符
is actually a combination of multiple vibrations.
都是多个振动的组合。
Imagine a guitar string vibrating at its lowest frequency.
想象以最低频率振动的吉他弦。
This is called the fundamental,
这叫做 “基音” ,
and this low pitch is what our ears mostly use to identify a note.
我们的耳朵大多是用 这个低音来辨别音符的。
But this lowest vibration triggers additional frequencies called overtones,
但这个最低振动会触发 额外的振动频率,叫做 “泛音”,
which layer on top of the fundamental.
泛音会叠加在基音之上。
These overtones break down into specific frequencies
这些泛音能分解成特定的频率,
called harmonics, or partials—
称为 “谐波” ,或 “分音” ——
and manipulating them is how opera singers work their magic.
而操纵分音就是歌剧演唱家 施展魔法的手段。
Every note has a set of frequencies that comprise its harmonic series.
每个音符都有一个 “泛音列”, 由一组频率构成。
The first partial vibrates at twice the frequency of the fundamental.
第一分音的振动频率 是基音的两倍,
The next partial is three times the fundamental’s frequency, and so on.
第二分音的振动频率 是基音的三倍,以此类推。
Virtually all acoustic instruments produce harmonic series,
几乎所有的原声乐器 均会产生泛音列,
but each instrument’s shape and material changes the balance of its harmonics.
但是每种乐器的形状和材质 会影响其泛音的平衡。
For example, a flute emphasizes the first few partials,
比如说,长笛突出强调前几个分音,
but in a clarinet’s lowest register,
而在单簧管的最低音区,
the odd-numbered partials resonate most strongly.
奇数的分音共振最强。
The strength of various partials
不同分音的强度
is part of what gives each instrument its unique sonic signature.
在一定程度上赋予了 每种乐器独特的音质,
It also affects an instrument’s ability to stand out in a crowd,
同时,还影响了乐器 在人群中脱颖而出的能力,
because our ears are more strongly attuned to some frequencies than others.
因为人们的耳朵更加适应某些频率。
This is the key to an opera singer’s power of projection.
这就是歌剧演唱者穿透力的关键。
An operatic soprano—
一位歌剧女高音——
the highest of the four standard voice parts—
四部和声中最高的声部——
can produce notes with fundamental frequencies
能唱出音符的基音频率
ranging from 250 to 1,500 vibrations per second.
介于每秒 250 到 1500 次之间。
Human ears are most sensitive to frequencies
人耳最敏感的频率
between 2,000 and 5,000 vibrations per second.
介于每秒 2000 到 5000 次之间。
So if the singer can bring out the partials in this range,
因此,如果演唱者能 发出这个范围内的分音,
she can target a sensory sweet spot where she’s most likely to be heard.
她就能瞄准听觉的 “甜蜜区”, 也就是最有可能被听到的范围。
Higher partials are also advantageous
更高的分音也很有优势,
because there’s less competition from the orchestra,
因为在这些频率区间, 乐器的泛音更弱,
whose overtones are weaker at those frequencies.
造成的干扰也更少。
The result of emphasizing these partials
强调这些分音的结果
is a distinctive ringing timbre called a singer’s squillo.
是一种独特的嘹亮音色, 叫做歌唱者的 “共振峰”(squillo)。
Opera singers work for decades to create their squillo.
歌剧演唱者苦练数十载, 以打造出自己的 “共振峰” 。
They can produce higher frequencies
通过调整声带和声道的形状和张力,
by modifying the shape and tension in their vocal folds and vocal tract.
他们可以发出频率更高的声音。
And by shifting the position of their tongues and lips,
而通过改变舌头和嘴唇的位置,
they accentuate some overtones while dampening others.
他们可以加强某些泛音, 同时弱化另一些泛音。
Singers also increase their range of partials with vibrato—
歌唱者也可以用 “颤音” 来扩展分音的音域——
a musical effect in which a note slightly oscillates in pitch.
这是一种音符在音高上 轻微振荡的音乐效果。
This creates a fuller sound that rings out
颤音能打造出更加饱满的声音,
over the instruments’ comparatively narrow vibratos.
比乐器相对狭窄的颤音更加响亮。
Once they have the right partials,
一旦掌握了正确的分音后,
they employ other techniques to boost their volume.
歌唱家们使用其他的技术来增强音量。
Singers expand their lung capacity and perfect their posture
他们扩大肺活量,并完善自己的仪态,
for consistent, controlled airflow.
以获得持续、可控的气流。
The concert hall helps as well,
音乐厅本身也有所助益,
with rigid surfaces that reflect sound waves towards the audience.
刚性表面能把声波反射到观众中。
All singers take advantage of these techniques,
所有的演唱者都会利用这些技术,
but different vocal signatures demand different physical preparation.
但不同的声音特点 需要不同的体态准备。
A Wagnerian singer needs to build up stamina
一位瓦格纳歌剧的歌唱家 需要锻炼耐力,
to power through the composer’s four-hour epics.
才能坚持唱完瓦格纳 长达四小时的鸿篇巨著。
While bel canto singers require versatile vocal folds
而美声唱法歌唱家 则需要灵活多变的声带,
to vault through acrobatic arias.
来演绎难度高超的咏叹调。
Biology also sets some limits—
生理也会设置局限——
not every technique is feasible for every set of muscles,
并不是每项技巧 对每组肌肉都适用,
and voices change as singers age.
随着年龄增加, 歌唱家的声音也有所变化。
But whether in an opera hall or a shower stall,
但无论是在歌剧院还是淋浴间,
these techniques can turn un-amplified voices
这些技巧能把未经放大的声音
into thundering musical masterpieces.
变成雷鸣般的音乐杰作。