菲律宾性别流动的历史 France Villarta: The gender-fluid history of the Philippines

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演员: France Villarta


台词
I was an eight-year-old kid in the mid-1990s.
90 年代中期时,我才 8 岁,
I grew up in southern Philippines.
在菲律宾南部长大。
At that age, you're young enough to be oblivious
在那个年纪, 你稚嫩得难以察觉
about what society expects from each of us
社会对于每个人的期望,
but old enough to be aware of what's going on around you.
但也已懂事到能知晓 周围发生的一切。
We lived in a one-bedroom house,
我们一家五口
all five of us.
都住在只有一间 卧室的房子里,
Our house was amongst clusters of houses
夹在一群主要由 木头和瓦楞金属板
made mostly of wood and corrugated metal sheets.
建成的房子中间。
These houses were built very close to each other
这些房子沿着 未铺砌的土路建造,
along unpaved roads.
一座紧挨着一座,
There was little to no expectation of privacy.
几乎没有任何隐私。
Whenever an argument broke out next door,
每当隔壁发生争吵时,
you heard it all.
你都能听得一清二楚。
Or, if there was a little ... something something going on --
或者,如果有人······ 在做这样那样的事情······
(Laughter)
(笑声)
you would probably hear that, too.
你大概也能听见。
(Laughter)
(笑声)
Like any other kid, I learned what a family looked like.
像其他孩子一样, 我了解了一个家庭是什么样的。
It was a man, a woman, plus a child or children.
它由一个男人,一个女人, 外加上一个或一群孩子组成。
But I also learned it wasn't always that way.
但我也学到了, 事实并非总是如此。
There were other combinations that worked just as well.
还有其他的家庭组合 也同样有效。
There was this family of three who lived down the street.
有一个三口之家 就住在我们这条街上。
The lady of the house was called Lenie.
这家的女主人名叫蕾妮。
Lenie had long black hair, often in a ponytail,
蕾妮有一头长长的黑发, 通常扎着马尾,
and manicured nails.
指甲修剪得整整齐齐。
She always went out with a little makeup on
她出门的时候总是化着淡妆,
and her signature red lipstick.
涂着标志性的口红。
Lenie's other half, I don't remember much about him
蕾妮的另一半, 我不太记得他了,
except that he had a thing for white sleeveless shirts
只记得他热衷穿 白色无袖衬衫,
and gold chains around his neck.
脖子上戴着金链子。
Their daughter was a couple years younger than me.
他们的女儿比我小几岁。
Now, everybody in the village knew Lenie.
村子里的每个人都认识蕾妮。
She owned and ran what was the most popular beauty salon
她拥有并经营着我们这边
in our side of town.
最受欢迎的美容院。
Every time their family would walk down the roads,
每次他们一家人走在路上,
they would always be greeted with smiles
人们总会对他们抱以微笑,
and occasionally stopped for a little chitchat.
偶尔还会停下来聊聊天。
Now, the interesting thing about Lenie
蕾妮有意思的地方在于,
is that she also happened to be a transgender woman.
她是一位变性女人。
She exemplified one of the Philippines' long-standing stories
她是菲律宾历史悠久的 性别多元化故事
about gender diversity.
的一个例证。
Lenie was proof that oftentimes we think of something as strange
蕾妮证明了,往往 我们觉得某件事物古怪,
only because we're not familiar with it,
只是因为我们对其不熟悉,
or we haven't taken enough time to try and understand.
或者没有花足够的时间 尝试去理解。
In most cultures around the world,
在世界上大多数文化中,
gender is this man-woman dichotomy.
性别是男女的二元划分,
It's this immovable, nonnegotiable, distinct classes of individuals.
是无法改变、毋容置疑、 泾渭分明的两组个体。
We assign characteristics and expectations
在一个人的生物性别 确定的那一刻,
the moment a person's biological sex is determined.
我们便对其赋予了特质与期望。
But not all cultures are like that.
但并非所有的文化都是如此。
Not all cultures are as rigid.
并不是所有的文化都这么死板。
Many cultures don't look at genitalia primarily
很多文化并不将生殖器
as basis for gender construction,
作为性别建构的主要基础。
and some communities in North America, Africa, the Indian subcontinent
在北美、非洲、 印度次大陆、太平洋诸岛,
and the Pacific Islands, including the Philippines,
包括菲律宾的一些社区,
have a long history of cultural permissiveness
有着对文化宽容、
and accommodation of gender variances.
对性别差异适应的悠久历史。
As you may know,
各位或许知道,
the people of the Philippines were under Spanish rule for over 300 years.
菲律宾人民被西班牙 统治了 300 多年。
That's from 1565 to 1898.
那是在 1565 年到 1898 年之间。
This explains why everyday Filipino conversations
这就解释了为什么 菲律宾的日常对话
are peppered with Spanish words
会夹杂着西班牙语,
and why so many of our last names, including mine, sound very Spanish.
为什么我们的这么多姓氏, 包括我的,听起来很像西班牙语。
This also explains the firmly entrenched influence of Catholicism.
这也解释了根深蒂固的 天主教影响。
But precolonial Philippine societies,
但是前殖民社会的菲律宾社会,
they were mostly animists.
大多数人都是万物有灵论者。
They believed all things had a distinct spiritual essence:
他们相信一切事物 有着独特的精神本质:
plants, animals, rocks, rivers, places.
植物,动物,岩石,河流,地点。
Power resided in the spirit.
力量存在于精神之中,
Whoever was able to harness that spiritual power was highly revered.
能够驾驭这种精神力量的人 会备受尊崇。
Now, scholars who have studied the Spanish colonial archives
研究西班牙殖民档案的学者 也告诉我们,
also tell us that these early societies were largely egalitarian.
这些早期社会大体上是平等的。
Men did not necessarily have an advantage over women.
男人不一定比女人有优势。
Wives were treated as companions, not slaves.
妻子被视作同伴,而不是奴隶。
And family contracts were not done without their presence and approval.
家庭合同的生效必须要有 她们在场并批准。
In some ways, women had the upper hand.
在某些方面,女性占了上风。
A woman could divorce her husband and own property under her own name,
一个女人可以和丈夫离婚, 拥有自己名下的财产,
which she kept even after marriage.
甚至在婚后仍能保留。
She had the prerogative to have a baby or not
她有决定是否生孩子、
and then decide the baby's name.
并为孩子命名的特权。
But the real key to the power of the precolonial Filipino woman
但前殖民社会的菲律宾女人 拥有权力的关键在于
was in her role as "babaylan,"
她担任的“巴巴伊兰”一职,
a collective term for shamans of various ethnic groups.
这是不同民族对萨满的统称。
They were the community healers,
她们是社区医师,
specialists in herbal and divine lore.
是草药和传说的专家。
They delivered babies
她们接生婴儿,
and communicated with the spirit world.
与灵界沟通。
They performed exorcisms
她们进行驱魔仪式,
and occasionally, and in defense of their community,
偶尔,为了保护她们的社区,
they kicked some ass.
她们还能暴打犯事者。
(Laughter)
(笑声)
And while the babaylan was a female role,
虽说巴巴伊兰是女性的职责,
there were also, in fact, male practitioners in the spiritual realm.
事实上,在精神领域 也有男性从业者。
Reports from early Spanish chroniclers contain several references
西班牙早期编年史作家的记载中 有几处提到了一些
to male shamans who did not conform to normative Western masculine standards.
不符合西方男性标准的男性萨满。
They cross-dressed
他们穿着女装,
and appeared effeminate
看上去偏女性化
or sexually ambiguous.
或中性化。
A Jesuit missionary named Francisco Alcina
一位名叫弗朗西斯科·阿尔西纳 (Francisco Alcina)的耶稣会传教士说,
said that one man he believed to be a shaman
一位他认为是萨满的男性
was "so effeminate
“如此女性化,
that in every way he was more a woman than a man.
以至于在所有方面, 他都更像女人,而非男人。
All the things the women did
女人做的所有事情
he performed,
他都会做,
such as weaving blankets,
比如编织毯子、
sewing clothes and making pots.
缝衣服和制作陶艺。
He danced also like they did,
男女的舞蹈不同,
never like a man,
他也和她们跳同样的舞,
whose dance is different.
从来不跳男人的舞蹈。
In all, he appeared more a woman than a man."
总之,他表现得更像女人, 而不是男人。”
Well, any other juicy details in the colonial archives?
在殖民地档案里 还有什么更劲爆的细节吗?
Thought you'd never ask.
还以为你们不会问呢。
(Laughter)
(笑声)
As you may have deduced by now,
你们现在或许已经推断出了,
the manner in which these precolonial societies conducted themselves
这些前殖民社会的行为方式
didn't go over so well.
不太受(殖民者的)欢迎。
All the free-loving, gender-variant-permitting,
所有那些热爱自由、 对多元化性别宽容
gender equality wokeness
的性别平等觉醒意识,
clashed viciously with the European sensibilities at the time,
都与当时欧洲人的感性 发生了剧烈冲突,
so much so that the Spanish missionaries spent the next 300 years
导致西班牙传教士 在接下来的 300 年里,
trying to enforce their two-sex, two-gender model.
一直试图强制实施 他们的那套两性模式。
Many Spanish friars also thought that the cross-dressing babaylan
许多西班牙修士也认为, 异装的巴巴伊兰
were either celibates like themselves
要么和他们一样独身禁欲,
or had deficient or malformed genitals.
要么有生殖器官缺陷或畸形。
But this was pure speculation.
但这纯粹是臆测。
Documents compiled between 1679 and 1685, called "The Bolinao Manuscript,"
1679 年至 1685 年间 编纂的文件《波里瑙手稿》中
mentions male shamans marrying women.
提到了男性萨满和女性结婚。
The Boxer Codex, circa 1590,
约 1590 年编写的《谟区查抄本》 (又名《马尼拉手稿》)
provide clues on the nature of the male babaylan sexuality.
提供了关于男性巴巴伊兰 性取向的线索:
It says, "Ordinarily they dress as women,
“他们平时打扮成女人,
act like prudes
表现得很禁欲,
and are so effeminate
而且女性化到
that one who does know them would believe they are women.
不认识他们的人 会以为他们是女人。
Almost all are impotent for the reproductive act,
他们几乎全员都生殖无能,
and thus they marry other males and sleep with them as man and wife
因此他们和别的男性结婚, 像夫妻一样共寝,
and have carnal knowledge."
并拥有肉体知识。”
Carnal knowledge, of course, meaning sex.
“肉体知识”当然 指的是性行为。
Now, there's an ongoing debate in contemporary society
在当代社会中, 关于性别是什么,
about what constitutes gender and how it should be defined.
以及如何定义性别的争论 一直在持续。
My country is no exception.
我的国家也不例外。
Some countries like Australia, New Zealand, Pakistan, Nepal and Canada
一些国家,比如澳大利亚、 新西兰、巴基斯坦、尼泊尔和加拿大,
have begun introducing nonbinary options in their legal documents,
已经开始在法律文件中, 引入男女性别之外的选项了。
such as their passports and their permanent resident cards.
比如他们的护照 和永久居民卡。
In all these discussions about gender,
在所有这些关于性别的讨论中,
I think it's important to keep in mind
我认为有一点很重要:
that the prevailing notions of man and woman as static genders
主流观点中, 严格以生理性别为基础
anchored strictly on biological sex
的男女静态性别,
are social constructs.
是一种社会建构。
In my people's case, this social construct is an imposition.
以我的国家为例, 这种社会建构是强行施加的。
It was hammered into their heads over hundreds of years
几百年以来,这种建构 都被强行灌输给他们,
until they were convinced that their way of thinking was erroneous.
直到他们深信自己原本 的思想是错误的。
But the good thing about social constructs
但社会建构的好处是,
is they can be reconstructed
它们可以被重建,
to fit a time and age.
以适应时代。
They can be reconstructed
它们可以被重建,
to respond to communities that are becoming more diverse.
以响应变得更加多样化的社区。
And they can be reconstructed
它们可以被重建,
for a world that's starting to realize
因为这个世界 已经开始意识到,
we have so much to gain from learning and working through our differences.
从差异中学习、在差异中合作, 能够让我们受益匪浅。
When I think about this subject,
当我思考这个话题时,
I think about the Filipino people
我会想到菲律宾的人民,
and an almost forgotten but important legacy
和我们几乎被遗忘、 却无比重要的
of gender equality and inclusivity.
性别平等与包容的遗产。
I think about lovers who were some of the gentlest souls I had known
我想起了一对对恋人, 拥有最温柔的灵魂,
but could not be fully open.
却不能完全公开。
I think about people who have made an impact in my life,
我想起了对我的人生 产生过影响的人们,
who showed me that integrity, kindness and strength of character
是他们教会我,正直、 善良和坚强的品格
are far better measures of judgment,
才是评判一个人更好的标准,
far better than things that are beyond a person's control
远远优于那些不在 个人掌控下的东西,
such as their skin color, their age
比如肤色、年龄
or their gender.
或者性别。
As I stand here today, on the shoulders of people like Lenie,
今天我站在这里, 站在像蕾妮这样的人的肩上,
I feel incredibly grateful for all who have come before me,
我深深地感谢那些先驱者,
the ones courageous enough to put themselves out there,
那些有足够勇气 坦露自我的人们,
who lived a life that was theirs
那些过着属于自己生活的人们,
and in the process, made it a little easier for us to live our lives now.
在这个过程中,他们也让 我们现在的生活轻松了些许。
Because being yourself is revolutionary.
因为“做你自己”是革命性的。
And to anyone reeling from forces trying to knock you down
如果有人试图击垮你,把你塞进
and cram you into these neat little boxes people have decided for you:
早已为你设计好的 精美的小盒子里,我想对你说:
don't break.
不要屈服。
I see you.
我看得见你。
My ancestors see you.
我的祖先们也看得见你。
Their blood runs through me as they run through so many of us.
他们的血在我的体内流淌, 也在我们许多人的体内流淌。
You are valid, and you deserve rights and recognition
你的存在方式是合理的, 你值得获得权利和认可,
just like everyone else.
就像任何人一样。
Thank you.
谢谢大家。
(Applause)
(鼓掌)