[As of the morning February 27, 2020,
[ 截止 2020 年 2 月 27 日，
there were at least 82,000 confirmed cases worldwide of the coronavirus
全球新冠肺炎确诊 82000 多例，
and 2,810 deaths from it.
其中死亡病例为 2810 个。
TED invited Dr. David Heymann to share the latest findings about the outbreak.]
TED 邀请了大卫 · 赫曼医生分享 对于本次病毒爆发的最新发现 ]
[What happens if you get infected with the coronavirus?]
[ 如果你感染了新冠病毒， 症状是什么？]
This looks like a very mild disease, like a common cold,
in the majority of people.
There are certain people who get infected and have very serious illness;
among them are health workers.
It's a very serious infection in them,
as they get a higher dose than normal people,
and at the same time, they have no immunity.
So in the general population,
it's likely that the dose of virus that you receive when you are infected
is much less than the dose that a health worker would receive,
health workers having more serious infections.
So your infection would be less serious, hopefully.
So that leaves the elderly and those with comorbidities
to really be the ones that we have to make sure
are taken care of in hospitals.
[Who are the people who should be most concerned about this?]
Well, the most concerned are people
who are, first of all, in developing countries
and who don't have access to good medical care
and may not have access at all to a hospital,
should an epidemic occur in their country.
Those people would be at great risk,
especially the elderly.
Elderly in all populations are at risk,
but especially those who can't get to oxygen.
In industrialized countries,
it's the very elderly who have comorbidities,
who have diabetes, who have other diseases,
The general population doesn't appear to be at great risk.
[What pre-existing medical conditions put people at higher risk?]
[ 有哪些既存病症会使人们 面临更高的感染风险？]
pulmonary disease existing as a comorbidity is also important.
In general, the elderly are at greater risk,
especially those over 70,
特别是 70 岁以上的老人，
because their immune systems are not as effective
as they might have once been,
and they are more susceptible to infections.
In addition, in some instances in China,
there's been a coinfection with influenza
and at the same time,
there have been some bacterial superinfections
on the pneumonias that are occurring.
[Where can we find up-to-date information?]
The Center for Disease Control in Atlanta keeps track
and has updates on a regular basis on its website.
Also, the World Health Organization in Geneva,
which is coordinating many of the activities
going on internationally,
also has a website with daily updates.
It's our responsibility to get that information as individuals,
and can make sure that we can contribute in our own way
to prevention of major spread.
[You led the global response to the SARS outbreak in 2003.
[ 在 2003 年，全球抗击 SARS 病毒的行动由你领导，
How does this outbreak compare?]
That's the same problem with all new infections.
This is an infection that's coming to humans
who have never been exposed to this virus before.
They don't have any antibody protection,
and it's not clear whether their immune system
can handle this virus or not.
This is a virus that usually finds itself in bats or in other animals,
and all of a sudden, it's in humans.
And humans just don't have experience with this virus.
we are beginning to learn a lot, as we did with SARS.
就像当时面对 SARS 病毒一样。
And you know, there are certainly a larger number of deaths
than there were with SARS.
超过了 SARS 病毒。
But when you divide that by a denominator of persons who are infected,
there are many, many more persons infected than there were with SARS.
新冠感染人数也比 感染 SARS 病毒的人多——
The case fatality ratio,
that is the ratio of deaths to the numbers of cases in SARS,
即死亡人数和确诊人数的比例， 就 SARS 而言，
was about 10 percent.
是 10% 左右。
With the current coronavirus, COVID-19,
it is two percent or probably less.
So it's a much less virulent virus,
but it's still a virus that causes mortality,
and that's what we don't want entering human populations.
[Have we responded adequately at border crossings, such as airports?]
[ 我们在国家边境做出的措施 还算及时妥当吗？]
It's clearly understood that airports or any land borders
cannot prevent a disease from entering.
People in the incubation period can cross that border,
can enter countries
and can then infect others when they become sick.
So borders are not a means of preventing infections from entering a country
by checking temperatures.
Borders are important because you can provide to people arriving
from areas that might be at risk of having had infection,
provide them with an understanding,
either a printed understanding or a verbal understanding,
of what the signs and symptoms are of this infection,
and what they should do if they feel that they might be infected.
[What's the timeline for a vaccine?]
Vaccines are under development right now,
there's a lot of research going on.
That research requires first that the vaccine be developed,
then that it be studied for safety and effectiveness in animals,
who are challenged with the virus after they are vaccinated,
and then it must go into human studies.
The animal studies have not yet begun,
but will soon begin for certain vaccines.
And it's thought that by the end of the year,
or early next year,
there may be some candidate vaccines
that can then be studied for licensing by regulatory agencies.
So we're talking about at least a year until there's vaccine available
that can be used in many populations.
[What questions about the outbreak are still unanswered?]
It's clear we know how it transmits,
we don't know how easily it transmits in humans,
in communities or in unenclosed areas.
We know, for example,
that in the enclosed area of a cruise ship, it spread very easily.
We need to better understand
how it will spread once it gets into more open areas
where people are exposed to people who might be sick.
[What about the global response could be improved?]
[ 全球对于病毒的应对有 哪些可以改进的地方？]
A major problem in the world today is that we look at outbreaks
in developing countries
as something that we need to go and stop.
So when there's an outbreak of Ebola,
we think "How can we go and stop this outbreak in the country?"
We don't think about "How can we help that country
strengthen its capacity,
so that it can detect and respond to infections?"
So we haven't invested enough
in helping countries develop their core capacity in public health.
What we've done is invested in many mechanisms globally,
which can provide support to other countries
to go and help stop outbreaks.
But we want to see a world where every country
can do its best to stop its own outbreaks.
[Will we see more emerging disease outbreaks in the future?]
[ 在未来我们是否会经历 更多的疫情爆发？]
Today, there are over seven billion people.
今天，地球上有超过 70 亿人口。
And when those people come into the world,
they demand more food,
they demand a whole series of things
and they live closer together.
In fact, we're an urban world, where people live in urban areas.
And at the same time, we're growing more animals,
and those animals are contributing food to humans as well.
is that that animal-human interface is becoming closer and closer together.
And this intensive agriculture of animals
and this intensive increase in human populations
living together on the same planet
is really a melting pot where outbreaks can occur and do occur.
We will eventually have more and more of these outbreaks.
So an emerging infection today is just a warning
of what will happen in the future.
We have to make sure
that that technical collaboration in the world
is there to work together
to make sure that we can understand these outbreaks when they occur
and rapidly provide the information necessary to control them.
[Is the worst behind us?]
I can't predict with accuracy.
So all I can say is that we must all be prepared
for the worst-case scenario.
And at the same time,
learn how we can protect ourselves and protect others
should we become a part of that epidemic.
[To learn more, visit: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
[ 了解更多，请访问： 疾病控制与预防中心官方网站，
World Health Organization]