蜜蜂如何启发微型博物馆网络的诞生 Amanda Schochet: How bumble bees inspired a network of tiny museums

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演员: Amanda Schochet


台词
If you told me five years ago
如果你在 5 年前告诉我,
that today I'd be delivering a talk
我今天会在这里
about our individual power to make a difference,
就个人的努力 如何影响这个世界发表演讲,
I would have cringed.
我一定会感到局促不安的。
It was my job to study huge global systems.
我之前的工作是研究 大型全球系统。
I was a researcher at NASA using satellite data to study the big picture.
我曾是NASA(美国国家航空航天局)的 一名研究者,通过卫星数据来研究宏观世界。
You can see a lot of things from space,
在太空中,你能观察到很多东西,
like every ecosystem on Earth
你能从各个角度看到,
being threatened from pretty much every angle
地球上的每个生态系统 都在遭受威胁,
and global inequality in air and water safety.
还有全球在空气质量 和用水安全方面的不平等现象。
These kinds of things would keep me up at night.
这些情况使我夜不能寐。
And then outside of work, I'd use this bird's-eye view
在工作以外的时间里, 我也会用这种全景视角
while thinking about our huge social structures
去思考关于大型社会结构的问题,
like education and media and health care,
像是教育、媒体和医疗。
and it looked to me like they were all really struggling, too.
在我看来, 这些领域的情况也不容乐观。
So I felt like the world was just trapped in this huge self-amplifying system
好像这个世界被困在了一个 自我持续恶化的系统中,
that was just spiraling towards destruction.
急速走向灭亡。
And of course I wanted to do something about this,
我当然想做点什么来改变这一切,
and I felt so small and utterly powerless.
但我又觉得自己是 那么的渺小与无助。
But I started to feel a little differently as my perspective shifted
但自从我把视角从宏观转向微观之后,
from the macro towards the micro.
我开始觉得有些不一样了。
It began with bumblebees.
这一切都要从大黄蜂开始说起。
I was using satellite imagery and field research
我当时在通过 卫星图片和实地调查
to study these amazing, cute pollinators
来研究这些神奇、可爱的授粉昆虫,
to see how they were doing in the midst of their own environmental crisis
想看看它们是怎样解决
in Southern California.
自己的种群在南加州 所遇到的环境危机的。
And from the macro view, I saw 22-lane freeways,
从宏观的视角, 我看到的是 22 车道的高速公路,
endless suburban sprawl
无边无际的郊区,
and water being diverted from parched rivers
水被从干涸的溪流引调到
to grow lawns in the desert.
沙漠以灌溉草地。
It was pretty grim.
这种情况让人感到沮丧。
But on the ground,
但事实上,
there were actually some small opportunities for optimism,
还是有些情况能让我们保持乐观——
these tiny patches of resources
这些被称作“栖息地区块”的
known as "habitat fragments."
小型土地资源。
If the right kinds of plants were growing along the edges of a Costco parking lot,
如果合适的植物能被种植在 好市多超市的停车场边缘,
and if in the neighborhoods nearby
如果在附近的居民区,
there were native plants in people's gardens,
本地植物能被种植在人们的花园中,
and in the canyons that were too steep for people to put their suburbs in,
在陡峭的,不适合人类居住的峡谷中
there were native plants instead of grasses
能种上些本地的植物来替代野草,
then all of these in-between spaces
那么所有的这些过渡空间
would actually add up to create a network of habitat fragments.
就能构建起一个 由“栖息地区块”组成的网络。
And this network meant that the bees could traverse through the concrete desert
这个网络的形成意味着 蜜蜂能横越“混凝土沙漠”,
feeding from and pollinating the native plants.
从本地植物中采集食物, 并为其授粉。
And these plants that the bees depend on and that the bees sustain are essential.
这些蜜蜂所依赖和维持着的植物 起着关键的作用。
They stabilize our steep hillsides.
它们使陡峭的山坡趋于稳定。
They provide food and homes to thousands of amazing species of animals,
它们为上千种神奇的动物 提供着食物与住所,
and, critically, they are helping to curb our devastating cycle of wildfires
同时,也是很重要的一点, 它们还能通过阻止外来入侵的,
by preventing the growth of those invasive grasses
易燃草种的生长,
that fuel the vicious flames that we're all too familiar with.
从而抑制极具毁灭性的野火循环。
It's a really vital and interconnected system,
这是个非常重要 且相互关联的系统,
and some people could see how they were a part of it,
有些人明白 他们自己也是其中的一部分,
and so they acted as habitat fragment gardeners.
于是他们开始自觉担任 “栖息地区块”园丁的角色。
They planted native plants in their yards,
他们在自己的院子里,
and they even were tending to the land in corporate parks
甚至在企业园区和 面向公众开放的峡谷中
and in public canyons.
种植本地植物。
In my research, I could actually see the impact
在我的研究中, 我确确实实能看到
that even one passionate gardener could make.
哪怕只有一位热心的园丁 都能产生的积极影响。
And then, repeated across the region,
随后,这些园丁还不断 在同一区域种植更多的植物,
their habitat fragments were adding up to make a more resilient ecosystem --
他们的“栖息地区块”加在一起 组成了一个更具适应力的生态系统——
not a perfect system, not by a long shot,
这虽然还远不是一个完美的系统,
but at least a system that was less likely to totally collapse
但至少在即将到来的
under impending pressures like further development and drought.
进一步开发和干旱性气候中 不那么容易崩溃。
So I was looking at the world through this lens
我当时就是通过 这些视角观察这个世界的。
when I found myself in the waiting room of a public hospital in Brooklyn
有一天,我和搭档查尔斯 在布鲁克林一家公立医院的
with my partner, Charles.
等候室里坐着。
We were sitting across from a group of teenagers
我们对面的一群青少年
who were slumped in their chairs
瘫坐在椅子上,
and bored out of their minds
显得很无聊,
and just refreshing their phones over and over again.
只是一味的刷着手机。
And in a neighborhood
这间等候室位于这座城市
with some of the lowest high school graduation rates in the city,
高中毕业率最低的社区之一,
this waiting room felt like a social habitat fragment
在我看来, 这里就是一个可被改造的
just waiting to happen.
社会“栖息地区块”。
So, we did some research to see what kinds of resources could we add
所以我们做了些调查, 看看为这样的空间
to spaces like this one
加入哪些资源
that would make an impact.
能产生些积极影响。
And we settled on museums.
我们最终选定了博物馆。
Museums are the most trusted source of public information,
博物馆是公众 最信赖的信息来源,
more than the media and more than the government,
公众对博物馆的信任多于 对媒体与政府的信任,
but they also cluster in wealthier neighborhoods.
但它们通常聚集在更富有的社区中。
New York has 85 museums in Manhattan,
纽约的曼哈顿有 85 家博物馆,
and the Bronx has eight,
而布朗克斯只有 8 家,
even though these two boroughs have almost the same size population.
尽管这两个市区 有着近乎一样数量的人口。
And then expensive tickets mean that a lot of people can't go to museums
而且昂贵的门票意味着很多人
even if they live nearby.
就算住在博物馆附近也去不了。
And these little injustices, they just go on and on
这些细微的不公平现象 会一直持续下去,
and they add up to create sweeping inequalities
直到最终在知识与权力方面
in knowledge and empowerment.
造成大范围的不平等。
Across the US,
纵观整个美国,
almost 90 percent of visitors to art museums are white,
艺术博物馆参观者中 近乎 90% 都是白人,
and even at the Smithsonian's network of free museums,
即使是史密森博物馆体系中 免费的博物馆,
almost half of their adult visitors have graduate degrees,
成年参观者中 近乎一半都有研究生学位,
which, like, 10 percent of the broader population has.
而所有人口中 仅有 10% 的人有研究生学位。
So it became clear to us
所以我们意识到,
that even though museums are these amazing educational and social resources,
尽管博物馆是绝佳的 教育与社会资源,
they're not reaching everyone.
但是它们的受众范围很窄。
And a lot of museums are aware of this, and they're trying to change it,
其实有很多博物馆意识到了这点, 也在试图改变这种状况,
but there's all these structural hurdles that are slowing them down.
但有太多结构上的阻碍 在拖慢他们的进度。
So we set out to create a distributed network
所以我们就开始着手创建 一个由博物馆“栖息地区块”
of museum habitat fragments.
所组成的分布式网络。
Working from a donated shipping container
通过大家捐赠的运输纸箱,
with the volunteer help of our friends
来自朋友们的无偿帮助
and dozens of very generous scientists
和全球各地
from all across the globe,
数十位慷慨的科学家的帮助,
we built our first prototype:
我们造出了第一个雏形:
the Smallest Mollusk Museum.
世界上最小的软体动物博物馆。
(Laughter)
(笑声)
Mollusks are these tentacled, slimy shape-shifters
软体动物指的是那些有触角的, 黏糊糊的变化多端的生物,
like oysters and octopuses and the giant squid,
像是牡蛎,章鱼, 还有巨型乌贼,
and if you've ever seen an alien in a movie,
如果你曾在电影中 见过外星人的形象,
then I'll bet you it was inspired by a mollusk.
我敢保证,那一定是 受到了软体动物的启发。
Their slimy sci-fi vibes
它们黏糊糊的形象 所营造出的科幻氛围
make them really fun tour guides for a biology museum,
很适合作为 生物博物馆的有趣向导,
and they can teach us about the systems that we all share,
它们也能教育我们 关于我们共享的生态系统的知识,
with a wake-up call.
给我们敲响警钟。
Of all the animal extinctions documented since the 1500s,
自十六世纪起, 有记载的已灭绝生物中,
more than 40 percent have been our friends, the mollusks.
超过 40% 都是 我们的朋友,软体动物。
So we tested this museum across the city
我们在城市的各地 测试了这个博物馆的效果,
to see if it resonated with all kinds of visitors,
想看看它是否 能吸引各种各样的参观者,
and it did.
效果很不错。
People really liked learning from it.
人们真的很喜欢 能从中学到些什么。
So we built a fleet of tiny science museums,
所以我们后来又建了 一系列微型科学博物馆,
each one small enough to fit into preexisting locations
每个都小到能够放置于现有空间,
with information dense enough that they could still pack a punch.
但同时也蕴含着足够大的知识容量 来聚集很多参观者。
And they're modular, so they can be distributed
它们是模块状的, 意味着可以被分散放置于
at a scale that can reach everyone.
能被所有人接触到的范围。
And then we partnered with libraries
我们还和图书馆、
and community centers and transit hubs
社区中心、交通枢纽,
and the public hospitals
还有公立医院进行合作,
so that we could transform their in-between spaces
将它们的过渡空间也转变成了
into habitat fragments for social learning.
供社会学习的“栖息地区块”。
And, fittingly, we named our fleet of museums "MICRO."
我们给该系列博物馆起了 一个恰当的名字:“MICRO”。
Even though each habitat fragment is small,
尽管每个“栖息地区块”都很小,
it provides the essentials.
却提供了必要的一切。
It draws people in so that they can explore
它们能吸引人群的注意, 让他们以一种社交方式
and learn together in a social way.
和他人一起学习,探索。
And then, distributed across the landscape,
后来我们还将它们 分散放置于城市景观中,
we're able to invite people everywhere
让所有人都能
into conversations around science.
探讨跟科学有关的话题。
When we partnered with a public hospital in the South Bronx,
当我们和南布朗克斯区的 一家公立医院合作时,
we became the Bronx's first and only science museum.
我们成了当地唯一的 一家科学博物馆。
Yeah, that's really weird. (Laughs)
没错,那真的太诡异了。(笑声)
(Laughter)
(笑声)
And really quickly,
很快的,
families started coming by with their kids
很多家长会带着孩子来参观,
and schools started arranging field trips,
学校开始组织户外教学,
all to this tiny museum in the front lobby of the public hospital.
大家都聚集到这家 公立医院前厅的小博物馆。
(Laughter)
(笑声)
And the museum became so popular
这个博物馆后来变得太受欢迎,
that we started hiring local students to be museum docents,
以至于我们不得不 招募一些当地学生来当讲解员,
so they could lead tours and activities for all the talented kids.
来为这些有才华的孩子 作向导,组织活动。
And every spark of curiosity that we're able to fuel
我们所能激发的每份好奇心,
and each new fact learned
所传授的每个新知识,
and every new friend made at the museum
让他们在博物馆结交到的每个新朋友,
and every kid who can have a meaningful and important after-school job,
每个多了一份有重要意义的 课后工作的孩子,
it all contributes to a stronger system.
都会助其成为一个更强健的系统。
So today, I try to keep the MICRO view in mind.
现在,我依然以这种 微观视角思考问题。
I'm always examining how small actions can add up
我总是想看看微小的行动
to create shifts
能如何促成
at the macro scale of systems.
宏观系统的转变。
And honestly, I'm seeing a lot of really good things.
事实上,我看到了很多积极的转变。
There are habitat fragments everywhere, nurtured by talented, passionate,
在每个角落,我都能看到由规模不同, 但都才华横溢、富有热情的组织
strategic individuals in groups of all sizes,
所建造的“栖息地区块”,
who are building towards systems with more equal access to food
它们在试着打造一个在 就业、医疗、住房、
and employment, health care, housing,
政治权力、教育
political empowerment, education and healthy environments.
以及健康环境等方面 都更具公平性的系统。
One by one, together,
一步一步, 肩并着肩,
we're filling gaps,
我们在填补这些空缺,
strengthening the systems that we're all a part of.
让我们身处的社会系统变得更强健。
We have to work on the big institutions too, of course.
我们当然也得花功夫在大型机构上。
It's just that they're so slow,
它们的发展太慢了,
and we're living in the midst of rapid change.
而我们又生活在急速的变化中。
It's a defining feature of our time.
这是我们这个时代的 一个决定性特征。
So maybe in some cases our small actions
所以在某些情况下, 我们的点滴行动
can be Band-Aids until the big guys catch up.
在这些大家伙跟上之前 可以起到创可贴的作用。
But without us, what are they going to be catching up to?
但如果没有我们, 它们还会有追赶的目标吗?
Am I still scared about the world?
我还在担心着这个世界吗?
Yes. (Laughs)
是的。(笑声)
That's why I'm talking to you.
这就是我来到这里的原因。
The world needs so many more habitat fragments.
这个世界需要更多的“栖息地区块”。
So, if you've been feeling overwhelmed or powerless lately,
所以如果你们最近觉得 不知所措或无能为力,
then I'm asking you to please try this very small strategy on for size,
我希望大家能试试这种小规模的策略,
and let's see how it goes.
看看效果如何。
Step one: zoom in.
第一步: 聚焦。
It's not one huge system
现在并不只存在一个巨型系统
that's just barreling unstoppably towards destruction.
在急速且持续的走向毁灭。
What we have are many overlapping systems,
我们有太多互相重叠的系统了,
and the ways that they interact determine everything.
它们彼此互动的方式决定着一切。
Step two: look for the resource gaps,
第二步:寻找资源缺口,
because that's where you can make the biggest difference.
因为那才是你能产生 最大影响的地方。
And do some research to understand how your ideas are going to interact
记得做些调查, 看看你的想法如何
with the systems that are already on the ground.
与现有的社会系统相互作用。
Step three: find the other habitat fragments.
第三步:寻找其他的“栖息地区块”。
Find out how they can support you and how you can support them,
看看你们能怎样相互协助,
because we're building a network together.
毕竟我们并不是在孤军奋战。
And step four: transform your fragment.
第四步:转变你的“栖息地区块”。
You might not have the leverage to change multiple systems at once,
你可能并没有能力 同时改变多个系统,
but there are so many small, meaningful and strategic things
但我们每个人都可以做 很多微小的、有意义的、
that each of us can do.
策略性的事情。
And there are a lot of us,
而无数人的努力汇集在一起,
so it will add up.
就会实现实质性的改变。
Thank you.
谢谢。
(Applause)
(掌声)