你为什么要因你的数据而获得报酬 Jennifer Zhu Scott: Why you should get paid for your data

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演员: Jennifer Zhu Scott


台词
I grew up in the late '70s in rural China
我成长于上世纪七十年代末 的中国农村,
during the final years of my country's pursuit of absolute equality
那正是我的祖国以自由为代价
at the expense of liberty.
摆脱极度贫困的最后几年。
At that time, everybody had a job,
那时,每个人都有工作,
but everyone was struggling.
但每个人都过得很艰难。
In the early '80s, my dad was an electrician,
在八十年代早期, 我的父亲是位电工,
and my mom worked two shifts in the local hospital.
而我的母亲在医院有两次轮班。
But still, we didn't have enough food,
尽管如此,我们仍没有足够的食物,
and our living conditions were dismal.
我们的居住环境很糟糕。
We were undoubtedly equal --
毋庸置疑,我们是平等的——
we were equally poor.
平等的贫穷。
The state owned everything.
国家拥有所有的东西。
We owned nothing.
而我们什么都没有。
The story I'm going to share with you is about my struggles
我将和你们分享的故事是
of overcoming adversity
我如何依靠
with my resilience, grit and sheer determination.
自己的韧性、 勇气和决心战胜逆境的。
No, I'm just kidding, I'm not going to do that to you.
才怪,我开玩笑的, 我才不会那么对你们。
(Laughter)
(笑声)
Instead, I'm going to tell you,
相反,我会告诉你们,
what I'm going to talk about today is about a new form of collective poverty
今天我要讲的是 一种新型的集体性贫困,
that many of us don't recognize
这种贫困并不为我们 大部分人而所知,
and that urgently needs to be understood.
但亟需被我们理解。
I'm sure you've noticed that in the past 20 years,
我相信你们肯定注意到了 在过去的 20 年中,
that asset has emerged.
这种资产正变得越来越重要,
It's been generating wealth at a breakneck pace.
而且正在以 快速而危险的速度创造出财富。
As a tool, it has brought businesses deep customer insights,
作为一种工具,它给商业带来了 深刻的客户洞见、
operational efficiency
运行效率
and enormous top-line growth.
以及巨大的顶线增长。
But for some,
但是对有些人,
it has also provided a device to manipulate a democratic election
这种资产也为操纵民主选举 或进行监视提供了工具,
or perform surveillance for profit or political purposes.
以达到盈利或政治目的。
What is this miracle asset?
这种神奇的资产是什么?
You've guessed it: it's data.
你们已经猜到了:是数据。
Seven out of the top 10 most valuable companies in the world are tech companies
全世界最有价值的 10 家公司中 有 7 家是科技公司,
that either directly generate profit from data
它们要么直接从数据中产生利润,
or are empowered by data from the core.
要么核心业务由数据支撑。
Multiple surveys show
许多调研显示,
that the vast majority of business decision makers
大部分的商业决策者
regard data as an essential asset for success.
将数据视为成功的关键资产。
We have all experienced how data is shifting this major paradigm shift
我们都经历了数据在我们的个人、
for our personal, economic and political lives.
经济和政治生活中 进行的范式转变。
Whoever owns the data owns the future.
拥有数据的人就拥有了未来。
But who's producing the data?
但是谁在产生数据?
I assume everyone in this room has a smartphone,
我相信这个屋子里的所有人 都有智能手机,
several social media accounts
若干个社交媒体账号,
and has done a Google search or two in the past week.
并在过去一周进行了 几次谷歌搜索。
We are all producing data. Yes.
我们都在产生数据。是的。
It is estimated that by 2030, 10 years from now,
据估计,到 2030 年, 也就是 10 年之后,
there will be about 125 billion connected devices in the world.
世界上将有 1250 亿互相连接的设备。
That's an average of about 15 devices per person.
平均下来,每个人有 15 个设备。
We are already producing data every day.
我们每天都在产生数据,
We'll be producing exponentially more.
这些数据在以指数增长。
Google, Facebook and Tencent's combined revenue in 2018
谷歌、脸书和腾讯 在 2018 年的收入加起来有
was 236 billion US dollars.
2360 亿美元之多。
Now, how many of you have received payment from them
你们中有多少人 因为你为他们产生的数据
for the data you generate for them?
而收到过报酬?
None, right?
没有,对吧?
Data has immense value but is centrally controlled and owned.
数据有巨大的价值, 却是被集中化控制和拥有的。
You are all walking raw materials for those large data companies,
你们都是这些大型数据公司的 行走的原材料,
but none of you are paid.
但是没有人被付过钱。
Not only that,
不止如此,
you're not even considered as part of this equation for income.
这些公司也从没考虑过 要支付报酬给你们。
So once again,
所以重复一遍,
we are undoubtedly equal:
我们都毋庸置疑的平等:
we're equally poor.
我们平等的贫穷。
Somebody else owns everything, and we own nothing.
有些人拥有一切, 而我们什么都没有。
Sounds familiar, doesn't it?
听起来很熟悉,不是吗?
So what should we do?
那么我们应该怎么办?
There might be some clues in how my life turned out
从那艰难的开端之后, 我生活的后续走向
after that difficult start.
可能会提供一些线索。
Things began to look up for my family in the '80s.
上世纪 80 年代, 我家里的情况开始好转。
The system evolved,
经济体系演进了,
and people began to be allowed to own a piece of what we created.
人们开始被允许拥有 一部分自己生产的东西。
"People diving into the ocean," “People diving into the ocean”,
or "xia hai," the Chinese term,
或用中文说,“下海”,
described those who left state-owned enterprise jobs
描述的是那些 离开国有企业工作,
and started their own businesses.
自己创办生意的人。
Private ownership of a business
商业的私有制
became personal ownership of cars,
转变成了个人拥有汽车、
properties, food, clothes and things.
财产、食物和衣服等等。
The economic machine started rolling,
经济机器开始运作,
and people's lives began to improve.
人们的生活开始得到改善。
For the first time,
第一次,
to get rich was glorious.
变得富有是件光彩的事情。
So in the '90s, when I went to study in Chengdu in west China,
90 年代,那时我在 中国西部的成都念书,
many young individuals like myself
许多像我一样的年轻人
were well-positioned to take advantage of the new system.
都很好的利用了这个新的体系。
After I graduated from my university,
在我大学毕业之后,
I cofounded my first business and moved to Shenzhen,
我合伙开办了我的第一个公司, 并搬到了深圳,
the brand-new special economic zone that used to be a fishing village.
这个曾是渔村的崭新经济特区。
Twenty years later,
二十年之后,
Shenzhen has become a global innovation powerhouse.
深圳成为了世界的创新工场。
Private ownership was a form of liberty we didn't have before.
私有制是我们不曾拥有 的一种自由形式。
It created unprecedented opportunities for our generations,
这给我们这一代创造了 前所未有的机遇,
motivating us to work and study incredibly hard.
鼓励着我们努力工作,努力学习。
The result was that more than 850 million people rose out of poverty.
结果是 8.5 亿人民脱离了贫困。
According to the World Bank,
根据世界银行报告的数据,
China's extreme poverty rate in 1981, when I was a little kid, was 88 percent.
1981 年,也就是我小时候, 中国的极端贫困率是 88%。
By 2015, 0.7 percent.
到了 2015 年,这个数字是 0.7%。
I am a product of that success,
我是那种成功的产物,
and I am very happy to share that today, I have my own AI business,
我很高兴在今天和你们说, 我有自己的 AI 企业,
and I lead a very worldly and dynamic life,
过着世俗的,充满活力的生活,
a path that was unimaginable when I was a kid in west China.
这是当年那个住在中国西部的孩子 完全无法想象的一条道路。
Of course, this prosperity came with a trade-off,
当然,这种繁荣面临着
with equality, the environment and freedom.
对公平、环境和自由的取舍。
And obviously I'm not here to argue that China has it all figured out.
显然,我在这里不是想说 中国已经解决了所有问题。
We haven't.
我们没有。
Nor that data is fully comparable to physical assets.
数据也不是完完全全 可以和实体资产相比的。
It is not.
这不现实。
But my life experience allowed me to see what's hiding in plain sight.
但是我的人生经验让我可以看到 隐藏在公众视野中的东西。
Currently, the public discourse
如今,提到数据所有权,
is so focused on the regulatory and privacy issue
公众的讨论主要集中在
when it comes to data ownership.
管理和隐私问题。
But I want to ask:
但我想问:
What if we look at data ownership in completely different ways?
如果我们从完全不同的角度 看待数据所有权,那会怎样?
What if data ownership is, in fact,
如果数据所有权实际上是
a personal, individual and economic issue?
私人的、个体的和经济上的问题, 那会怎样?
What if, in the new digital economy,
如果在新的数字经济,
we are allowed to own a piece of what we create
我们被允许拥有 我们创造的(数据的)一部分,
and give people the liberty of private data ownership?
并给人们私有数据所有权的自由, 那会怎样?
The legal concept of ownership is when you can possess,
所有权的法律概念是, 你可以拥有、
use, gift, pass on, destroy
使用、赠予、转让、销毁
or trade it or sell your asset
或是以你愿意接受的价格
at a price accepted by you.
交易或出售你的资产。
What if we give that same definition to individuals' data,
如果我们用相同的定义来 定义个人数据,
so individuals can use or destroy our data
这样个人可以使用或 销毁我们的数据,
or we trade it at our chosen price?
或者可以以我们选定的价格 交易数据,那会怎样?
Now, I know some of you might say,
我知道你们中的一些人会说,
"I would never, ever trade my data for any amount of money."
“我永远也不会 把我的数据拿来卖钱。”
But that, let me remind you, is exactly what you're doing now,
但是让我提醒你们, 这就是你们现在正在做的事情,
except you're giving your data away for free.
只是你们免费把数据拱手让人。
Plus, privacy is a very personal and nuanced issue.
另外,隐私是一个非常个人 并且微妙的问题。
You might have the privilege to prioritize your privacy over money,
你也许可以 将隐私置于金钱之上,
but for millions of small business owners in China
但是对于中国的数百万 小微企业主来说,
who can't get bank loans easily,
想要拿到银行贷款困难重重,
using their data to gain rapid loan approval from AI-powered lenders
利用他们的数据,从由 AI 技术 支持的贷方获得快速贷款
can answer their more pressing needs.
却可以解他们的燃眉之急。
What's private to you
你们眼中的隐私
is different from what's private to others.
和他人眼中的隐私 是不一样的。
What's private to you now
现在你们眼中的隐私
is different from what was private when you were in college.
和大学时代你们眼中的隐私 是不一样的。
Or, at least, I hope so.
至少,我希望如此。
(Laughter)
(笑声)
We are always, although often subconsciously,
尽管我们没有意识到这一点,
making such trade-offs
但我们总是基于各种各样的 个人理念和生活优先级
based on our diverse personal beliefs and life priorities.
做着这样的权衡。
That is why data ownership would be incomplete
这就是为什么在没有 定价权的情况下
without a pricing power.
数据所有权是不完整的。
By assigning pricing power to individuals,
通过将定价权赋予给个人,
we gain a tool to reflect our personal and nuanced preferences.
我们获得了一种工具, 来反映我们个人和有细微差别的偏好。
So, for example, you could choose to donate your data for free
举个例子,你可以选择 将你的数据免费捐赠,
if a contribution to a particular medical research
如果捐赠给某个特定的医疗机构
is very meaningful for you.
于你而言很有意义。
Or, if we had the tools to set our behavior data
或者,如果我们可以 将我们的行为数据
at a price of, say, 100,000 US dollars,
定价为十万美元,
I doubt any political group would be able to target
我怀疑不会有任何的政治团体 有能力去
or manipulate your vote.
针对或操纵你的选票。
You control. You decide.
你主宰。你决定。
Now, I know this sounds probably implausible,
我知道这听起来可能不太现实,
but trends are already pointing to
但是现在的趋势已经指向了
a growing and very powerful individual data ownership movement.
一个正在发展并且非常有力的 个人数据所有权的运动。
First, start-ups are already creating tools
首先,初创公司已经创造出工具
to allow us to take back some control.
让我们可以收回一些控制权。
A new browser called Brave
一个名为 Brave 的新浏览器
empowers users with "Brave Shields" -- they literally call it that --
通过“Brave Shields”(勇敢之盾)—— 他们真的这么叫它——
by aggressively blocking data-grabbing ads and trackers,
使得用户可以屏蔽 数据爬取广告和追踪,
and avoid leaking data like other browsers.
并像其他浏览器一样 防止数据泄露。
In return, users can take back some bargaining and pricing power.
作为回报,用户可以夺回 一些议价和定价权。
When users opt in to accept ads,
当用户选择接受广告时,
Brave rewards users with "basic attention tokens"
Brave 奖励用户“基础注意力代币” (“basic attention tokens”)
that can redeem content behind paywalls from publishers.
用户可以以此换取 出版商的付费内容。
And I've been using Brave for a few months.
我使用 Brave 有几个月了。
It has already blocked more than 200,000 ads and trackers
它已经屏蔽了 超过 20 万条广告和追踪,
and saved hours of my time.
节省了我数小时的时间。
Now, I know some of you interact with your browser
我知道你们中的一些人 和浏览器的互动
more than with your partners, so --
要高过与伴侣的互动,所以——
(Laughter)
(笑声)
you should at least find one that doesn't waste your time and is not creepy.
你们应当至少找一个 不那么浪费时间,也不奇怪的浏览器。
(Laughter)
(笑声)
Do you think Google is indispensable?
你们觉得谷歌是必不可少的吗?
Think again.
再想想。
A search engine is indispensable.
搜索引擎是必不可少的。
Google just has the monopoly --
谷歌只是有垄断权——
for now.
现在如此。
A search engine called DuckDuckGo doesn't store your personal information
一个名为 DuckDuckGo 的搜索引擎 不会储存个人信息
or follow you around with ads
或是使用广告轰炸,
or track your personal browsing history.
或是追踪个人浏览历史。
Instead, it gives all users the same search results
相反,它会给所有用户 相同的搜索结果,
instead of based on your personal browsing records.
而不是基于个人的浏览记录。
In London, a company called digi.me
在伦敦,有家公司叫 digi.me,
offers an app you can download on your smartphone
他们提供了一个可以下载到 智能手机的软件,
that helps to import and consolidate your data generated by you
这个软件可以从 Fitbit、Spotify 和其他社交账号
from your Fitbit, Spotify,
导入并整合
social media accounts ...
你自己产生的数据。
And you can choose where to store your data,
你可以选择在哪里储存你的数据,
and digi.me will help you to make your data work for you
而 digi.me 会通过提供方案 来帮助让你的数据为你工作,
by providing insights that used to be exclusively accessible
而这些方案之前也由 大的数据公司
by large data companies.
独家垄断。
In DC, a new initiative called UBDI, U-B-D-I,
在华盛顿,一个新的项目 UBDI, U-B-D-I,
Universal Basic Data Income,
全民基本数据收入 (Universal Basic Data Income),
helps people to make money
通过共享针对用户数据的匿名见解
by sharing anonymous insights through their data
来帮助用户赚钱,
for companies that can use them for market research.
这些公司可以将其结论用于市场研究。
And whenever a company purchases a study,
当公司购买一项调研时,
users get paid in cash and UBDI points to track their contribution,
用户可以获得现金支付和 UBDI 点数 以作为他们贡献的回报,
potentially as much as 1,000 US dollars per year
根据他们的估计,
per their estimation.
一年可以达到 1000 美元。
UBDI could be a very feasible path for universal basic income
UBDI 可以在 AI 经济中
in the AI economy.
作为全民基本收入的 一条可行性道路。
Further, individual awareness of privacy and data ownership
更进一步,个人对隐私和 数据所有权的意识
is growing fast
正在快速觉醒,
as we all become aware of this monster we have unleashed in our pocket.
因为我们都开始意识到了 我们口袋中的这个猛兽。
I'm a mother of two preteen girls,
我是两个青春期少女的妈妈,
and trust me,
相信我,
the single biggest source of stress and anxiety as a parent,
作为家长,最大的压力和焦虑来源,
for me, is my children's relationship with technology.
对我而言,就是我的孩子 与科技的关系。
This is a three-page agreement my husband and I make them sign
这是她们收到第一部(手机)前,
before they receive their first [mobile phone].
我和我丈夫让她们签的 三页长的同意书。
(Laughter)
(笑声)
We want to help them to become
我们希望帮助她们
digital citizens,
成为数字公民,
but only if we can make them become smart and responsible ones.
但除非我们可以让她们成为 智慧且有责任感的数字公民。
I help them to understand what kind of data should never be shared.
我帮助她们理解 什么样的数据永远不能被分享。
So if you Google me,
所以如果你们谷歌我,
in fact -- actually, sorry -- if you DuckDuckGo me,
——对不起, 如果你们 DuckDuckGo 我,
you will find maybe a lot about me and my work,
你们会发现很多 关于我和我的工作的信息,
but you may find no information about my daughters.
但是你们不会找到关于 我女儿的信息。
When they grow up,
当她们长大时,
if they want to put themselves out there, it's their choice, not mine,
如果她们想要把自己的信息挂在网上, 那是她们的选择,不是我的,
despite that I insist they're the most beautiful,
尽管我一直强调 她们是世界上最美丽、
smartest and most extraordinary kids in the world, of course.
最聪明、最独一无二的孩子。
And I know many people are having similar conversations
我知道很多人都有过相似的对话,
and making similar decisions,
做了相似的决定,
which gives me hope
这让我坚信
that a truly smart data-rich future will be here soon.
一个真正的信息丰富的未来 即将到来。
But I want to highlight the Clause 6 of this agreement.
但是我想要强调下 这份同意书的条款 6。
It says, "I will never, ever search for any information online
写着,“我永远不会在网上分享任何
if I would be embarrassed if seen by Grandma Dawnie."
如果奶奶道恩妮看到, 我会感到尴尬的信息。”
(Laughter)
(笑声)
Try it. It's really effective.
试试吧,这真的很有效。
(Laughter)
(笑声)
Throughout history,
纵观历史,
there has always been a trade-off between liberty and equality
在追求繁荣时,
in the pursuit of prosperity.
总会有着自由和平等的取舍。
The world has constantly been going through the circle of wealth accumulation
世界在财富积累和财富再分配之间
to wealth redistribution.
不断循环。
As the tension between the haves and have-nots
随着穷人和富人之间的紧张关系
is breaking so many countries,
在许多国家内爆发,
it is in everyone's interest,
防止新型的不平等
including the large data companies,
是每个人的利益所在,
to prevent this new form of inequality.
包括大型数据公司。
Of course, individual data ownership is not the perfect nor the complete answer
当然,个人数据所有权 并不是对“什么是好的数字社会”
to this profoundly complex question
这个深奥复杂问题的
of what makes a good digital society.
完美或是完整的答案。
But according to McKinsey,
但根据麦肯锡的报告,
AI will add 13 trillion US dollars of economic output in the next 10 years.
AI 会在未来十年增加 13 万亿美元的经济产出。
Data generated by individuals will no doubt contribute
个人产生的数据无疑会
to this enormous growth.
对这巨大的发展做出贡献。
Shouldn't we at least consider an economic model
我们不应该至少考虑下
that empowers the people?
赋权给人们的经济模型吗?
And if private ownership helped to lift more than 850 million people
如果私有制可以帮助 8.5 亿人
out of poverty,
摆脱贫困,
it is our duty
那么构建一个
and we owe it to future generations
除了赋权于商,还能赋权于人的
to create a more inclusive AI economy
更加包容的 AI 经济,
that will empower the people in addition to businesses.
就是我们的责任, 也是我们对未来世代的责任。
Thank you.
谢谢。
(Applause)
(掌声)