独裁者痛恨政治漫画——所以我一直画下去 Rayma Suprani: Dictators hate political cartoons -- so I keep drawing them

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演员: Rayma Suprani


台词
[This talk is delivered in Spanish with consecutive English translation]
【此演讲为西班牙语, 每句话后配有英文翻译】
(Rayma Suprani: Speaks Spanish)
(Rayma Suprani(RS):西班牙语)
Cloe Shasha: When I was a little girl,
Cloe Shasha(CS): 我小的时候,
I used to draw on all the walls of my house.
曾在家里所有的墙上画画。
(RS: Speaks Spanish)
(RS: 西班牙语)
CS: Until one day, my mother got angry and told me,
CS: 直到有一天,我妈妈生气了, 她对我说:
"You can only draw on one wall.
“你只许在一面墙上画。
Don't draw on any others."
不许画到其它地方。”
(Laughter)
(笑声)
(Speaks Spanish)
(西班牙语)
That was the first time I experienced an act of totalitarian censorship.
那是我第一次遭受极权主义审查。
(Laughter)
(笑声)
(Speaks Spanish)
(西班牙语)
But a lack of freedom stimulates creativity and empowers it.
但是缺少自由 激发并促进了我的创造力。
(Speaks Spanish)
(西班牙语)
Many years have passed since my childhood,
很多年过去了,
but throughout my formal studies,
但贯穿我的学习生涯,
I found myself drawing in the margins of my notebooks
我发现我经常不听课,
instead of paying attention to my professors.
而是埋头于在笔记本的边脚画画。
I studied journalism in college
我在大学学习新闻专业,
with the intention of expanding my communication and writing skills,
本打算借此提升 我的沟通和写作技巧,
but the only thing that I felt connected to in life
却发觉在我的人生中,
was drawing.
我只与画画紧密相连。
(Speaks Spanish)
(西班牙语)
I was born in a democracy,
我出生于一个民主制国家, 委内瑞拉。
in a country called Venezuela, which is now a dictatorship.
现在它是一个独裁国家。
(Speaks Spanish)
(西班牙语)
For 19 years,
作为一个每日漫画家,
I was the daily cartoonist for "El Universal,"
我在委内瑞拉规模最大的报社之一, 《萨尔瓦多环球》
one of the biggest newspapers in Venezuela.
工作了 19 年。
I really enjoyed translating political and cultural current events into drawings.
我非常享受将当前政治和文化事件 转化为漫画的过程。
(Speaks Spanish)
(西班牙语)
In the year 2014,
在 2014 年,
I got fired from my job at the newspaper over a cartoon that I drew
我因为画了一幅 映射委内瑞拉医疗体制的漫画
alluding to the health care system in Venezuela.
而被报社开除。
I drew a flat line of a heartbeat monitor,
我画了一条平的心电图电位线,
but I intentionally drew the heartbeat line
但我专门把下面一条线
in a way that resembled the signature of Hugo Chavez,
画成前委内瑞拉总统
the former president of Venezuela.
乌戈·韦查斯的签名。
(Laughter)
(笑声)
(Speaks Spanish)
(西班牙语)
All of this happened after the newspaper was bought
这一切就发生在报社
by an unknown company,
被一家匿名公司收购后,
and some of us suspect
我们中间一些人推测
that it was the Venezuelan government who was behind that deal.
这个交易背后的推动者 是委内瑞拉政府。
(Speaks Spanish)
(西班牙语)
My work as a cartoonist became more and more of a nuisance
我的漫画工作
for the dictatorship.
越来越被独裁者讨厌。
They have no tolerance for any freedom of expression
他们不允许任何言论自由
or free thinking.
或思想自由。
(Speaks Spanish)
(西班牙语)
After I got fired,
在我被开除后,
I started to feel unsafe in my own country.
继续呆在自己的国家 开始让我感到不安。
I received anonymous calls and death threats.
我收到了许多匿名电话和死亡恐吓。
I was mocked publicly on national television.
我被国家电视台公开地嘲弄。
I was eventually forced out of Venezuela,
我最终被驱逐出境,
and I now live in Miami, Florida,
现在,我住在佛罗里达的迈阿密,
where I am free to be my own editor for my work.
在这里,我可以 自由编辑自己的作品。
(Speaks Spanish)
(西班牙语)
A political cartoon is a barometer of freedom in a country.
政治漫画是一个国家 自由程度的晴雨表。
That's why dictators hate cartoonists
这就是为什么独裁者痛恨漫画家,
and try to eradicate everything that involves humor
并且试图根除所有
as a mirror for social and political issues.
反应社会和政治问题的幽默。
(Speaks Spanish)
(西班牙语)
A cartoon involves a delicate balance of ideas and drawings
漫画包含对于观点 和绘画精妙的平衡,
that reveal a hidden truth.
来揭示不为人知的真相。
(Speaks Spanish)
(西班牙语)
And a good cartoon is one that conveys a plot of a full-length movie
一个好的漫画 是在一个简单画面中展示出
in a single frame.
一部完整电影的情节。
(Speaks Spanish)
(西班牙语)
A cartoon needs to communicate the core of a story with its precision.
漫画作品需要精确地展示事件的核心。
And when it succeeds,
当做到这一点时,
its message can have the effect of inoculating people
漫画所包含的信息可以使人们
with a dose of skepticism.
对事件产生质疑。
(Speaks Spanish)
(西班牙语)
Cartoons are drawn from observation and analysis.
漫画来自观察和分析。
They are inspired by muses of mythology,
创作它们的灵感来自神话
as well as classical, modern and paleolithic tales.
以及古典、现代 和旧石器时代的故事。
(Laughter)
(笑声)
When we are told that a modern-day emperor is wearing new clothes,
当我们得知一个现代的专制统治者 正在穿着新衣服,
cartoons reveal that the emperor just might still be naked.
漫画揭露说这些统治者们 可能还光着身子。
(Speaks Spanish)
(西班牙语)
At one point in my career,
在我工作的某一段时期,
I drew pigs and compared them with politicians and national guards
我把阻止学生和平示威的
who were responsible for stopping peaceful student demonstrations.
政客和警卫队画成了猪。
One day, when I got back to my office,
一天,当我回到办公室,
I had a letter on my desk.
发现桌上放着一封信。
(Speaks Spanish)
(西班牙语)
The letter was from the Venezuelan Swine Federation.
是委内瑞拉“猪联会”的一封信。
(Laughter)
(笑声)
(Speaks Spanish)
(西班牙语)
The letter said,
信上说,
"Please do not compare an animal as wonderful as a pig with politicians.
“请不要用猪这么伟大的动物 来比喻政客。
(Laughter)
(笑声)
Pigs are very friendly and noble,
猪是一种非常友好和高尚的动物,
they can be a great mascot,
它们是很好的吉祥物,
they make good pets
是很好的宠物,
and they provide sustenance to us in the form of pork."
而且它们为我们提供猪肉作为食物。"
(Speaks Spanish)
(西班牙语)
I think they were absolutely right.
我认为他们完全正确,
I didn't draw any more pigs,
我不再画猪了,
but I did keep drawing politicians.
但我确实还一直在画政客。
(Laughter)
(笑声)
(Speaks Spanish)
(西班牙语)
A cartoon travels on an information highway,
漫画行驶在看似有多条车道的
which seems like it has multiple lanes,
信息高速公路上,
but in reality, all of these lanes
但是现实中,所有的车道
lead to a binary response of either positivity or rage.
都会引向两个截然相反的回应, 要么赞同,要么愤怒。
"I like it" or "I don't like it."
“我喜欢” 或者“我不喜欢”。
Those are the only responses
只有这两种反应
that govern democratic thinking on the internet.
支配着网民的想法。
(Speaks Spanish)
(西班牙语)
We have lost the space for nuanced debate,
我们已经失去了细致思索的机会,
we have no time,
大家都太忙了,
so we simply respond with approval or disdain,
所以我们仅仅回应赞同或者不屑,
and we let algorithms take over.
然后让程序和算法来接管。
(Speaks Spanish)
(西班牙语)
But a cartoon is born from a space of deep, nuanced thinking.
但是漫画诞生于深入、细致的思考。
Creating a good cartoon involves repeated failures,
好漫画的创作会经历反复的失败,
draft after draft.
和一稿接一稿的修改。
And a cartoonist must shed their own taboos
一个漫画家必须抛弃自己的忌讳,
to spark a conversation, rather than a confrontation,
通过他们的作品去引起交流,
through their work.
而不是冲突。
(Speaks Spanish)
(西班牙语)
In the year 2013, President Chavez died,
在 2013 年, 查韦斯总统去世,
and I had to think about what to draw as the cartoon of the day
我需要想出画点什么 作为《萨尔瓦多环球》报刊
at "El Universal."
当日的漫画。
I was personally happy that he had passed away,
个人来讲我对他的去世感到高兴,
because I thought that the end of his power
因为我觉得他执政的结束
would potentially bring our country closer to freedom and better times.
也许能让我们的国家 更接近自由和更好的时代。
(Speaks Spanish)
(西班牙语)
But there were many other people who were mourning the death of Chavez,
但还有很多人在哀悼查韦斯的离世,
so there was a divided sentiment in Venezuela.
所以委内瑞拉国内出现了分歧。
Some were celebrating,
有些人在庆祝,
and others were crying at the loss of their leader.
而其他人在为失去了领导人而哭泣。
(Speaks Spanish)
(西班牙语)
I felt stuck,
我开始犹豫不决,
I really didn't know what to draw in this historic moment.
不知道在这历史性的一刻 该画些什么。
And I knew that I couldn't allow my happiness to seep into my work,
我也知道我不能让 自己的快乐渗透进我的作品,
that I should take the higher road and respect people's grief.
我应该采取更崇高的措施 并尊重人们的悲伤。
So what could I draw?
所以我该画些什么呢?
(Speaks Spanish)
(西班牙语)
I spent many hours drafting and throwing out papers.
我花了很长时间打草稿, 再把草稿扔掉,反反复复。
My editor called me and said
我的编辑对我说
everything was late for that day's newspaper
你赶不上那天的报纸了,
and asked me when I'd be done.
并问我什么时候能画完。
It was in the middle of the night that the idea came to me.
直到半夜我才有了思路。
And we then published a cartoon
然后我发表了这样一幅漫画
that represented a historical moment in time.
来呈现这一历史性时刻。
(Speaks Spanish)
(西班牙语)
A fallen king chess piece in red.
一个倒下的红色王棋。
(Speaks Spanish)
(西班牙语)
A good cartoon has a lot of power.
一幅好漫画有强大的力量。
It can generate action and reaction.
它可以激发行动和回应。
That's why a cartoonist must exercise their power responsibly,
这就是为什么一位漫画家 必须负责地运用漫画的力量,
showcasing the truth
揭示真相,
and drawing without the fear of consequences.
并且不计后果地画出来。
(Speaks Spanish)
(西班牙语)
Having an opinion has a cost,
有自己的观点是要付出代价的,
and in some countries, that cost is high.
在某些国家,这个代价很高。
(Speaks Spanish)
(西班牙语)
In Venezuela,
在委内瑞拉,
many young people have been killed for protesting peacefully.
许多年轻人因和平抗议被杀。
There are men and women who are stuck behind bars
许多人作为政治犯
as political prisoners.
被困在监狱中。
So over the years,
所以这些年来,
I've drawn the faces of imprisoned women,
我一直在画监狱里女人的脸,
because I don't want them to be forgotten by the community.
因为我不想她们被社会遗忘。
(Speaks Spanish)
(西班牙语)
This year at an event called El Foro Penal,
今年,在一个叫 萨尔瓦多 Foro Penal 的
which is a criminal forum
犯罪论坛上,
where a group of lawyers do pro bono work
即一群律师为了委内瑞拉政治犯
for Venezuelan political prisoners,
做无偿工作的地方,
a young woman approached me and she said,
一个年轻的女人走近我,说:
"I was imprisoned,
“我被关到监狱,
and then you drew my face and my story.
然后你画出了我的脸和我的遭遇。
It's because of that drawing that people knew who I was.
正因如此,人们才认识了我。
Your cartoon helped me survive my days in prison.
你的漫画帮助我熬过了 在监狱里那些日子。
Thank you."
谢谢你。”
(Speaks Spanish)
(西班牙语)
This was a moment that meant a lot to me,
这一刻对我来说意义重大,
because I had found a way to collaborate
因为我找到了一个方式
with the memories of my country and its people.
记录我的祖国和它的人民的回忆。
(Speaks Spanish)
(西班牙语)
Last year, I started making drawings about immigration.
去年,我开始画移民。
I drew my own world, my fears,
我画我自己的世界,我的恐惧,
my suitcase, my roots
我的手提箱,我的靴子,
and everything that I had to leave behind in Venezuela.
所有我留在委内瑞拉的东西。
I also drew my joy in the face of this new opportunity
我也画出了我作为移民到美国
as an immigrant in the United States.
面对这一新机遇的快乐。
(Speaks Spanish)
(西班牙语)
From there, I worked on a series of drawings
在那里,我画了一系列漫画
that represented the experience and psychology of immigration.
来展现移民的经历和心理活动。
(Speaks Spanish)
(西班牙语)
Being an immigrant is like moving to another planet.
成为移民就如同搬到了另一个星球。
At first, you don't understand anything about your new world.
起初,你不了解新世界的任何东西。
There are new codes, a new language
新的代码,新的语言,
and unfamiliar tools you need to learn how to use
还有陌生的工具需要学着怎么用,
in order to adapt to your new life.
来适应你的新生活。
(Speaks Spanish)
(西班牙语)
Being an immigrant is the closest thing to being an astronaut
成为移民是最接近
who landed on the moon.
成为登月宇航员的经历。
(Speaks Spanish)
(西班牙语)
Over time, that series of drawings became a traveling exhibition,
逐渐地,那一系列漫画 变成了旅游展览,
called "I, Immigrant."
我叫它 “我,一个移民”。
And the exhibition traveled to multiple cities,
那个展览在许多城市巡展,
including Miami, Houston, Madrid, Barcelona,
包括迈阿密、休斯顿、 马德里、巴塞罗那,
and we're hoping for more places.
我还希望它能去更多地方。
(Speaks Spanish)
(西班牙语)
The show has become a meeting space for the diaspora,
这个展览成为了移居民族的聚集场所,
for people to gather and recognize their shared experiences of suffering
成为了人们聚集并感受他们作为移民
that come with immigration.
共同的痛苦经历的场所。
(Speaks Spanish)
(西班牙语)
What I want these drawings to convey
我想让这些画表达,
is that an immigrant is not a criminal.
移民不是罪犯。
An immigrant is a person whose life has been broken.
一个移民是一个生活遭到破坏的人。
A person who has very likely been separated from their family
一个很有可能在非人环境下
under inhumane conditions.
与家人分离的人。
Who has been forced to leave their country in search of a better life.
一个为了寻求更好的生活 被迫离开自己国家的人。
(Speaks Spanish)
(西班牙语)
A drawing can be a synthesis of a place,
一幅漫画可以是一个地方、
a universe, a country or a society.
一段经历、一个国家 或社会的综合体现。
It can also represent the inner workings of someone's mind.
它也可以展现个人的内心世界。
For me, drawing cartoons is a form of resistance.
对我来说,画漫画 是反抗的一种形式。
(Speaks Spanish)
(西班牙语)
A cartoon is like a Rosetta stone.
一幅漫画就像一块罗塞达石碑 (记录了古埃及象形文字的石碑)。
If we throw it into outer space,
如果我把它扔到外太空,
a future alien would be able to know with certainty
未来的外星人就能够清楚地了解
that in the past,
在过去
we once had a civilized world with free thinking.
我们曾经有一个存在 自由思想的文明世界。
(Speaks Spanish)
(西班牙语)
That one wall that my mother gave me the freedom to draw on feels infinite.
我妈妈允许我画画的那堵墙 感觉无穷大。
And it's for that reason that I am still drawing.
这就是我一直在画画的原因。
Thank you very much.
谢谢你们。
(Cheers and applause)
(欢呼声和掌声)