For my husband, it was love at first sight.
Here's what happened.
who I had strictly put in the friend zone at the time,
came over to my house and met my dad,
a pharmaceutical scientist who had just retired
after bringing a drug to market.
"Ah, you probably wouldn't have heard of it.
It's for IPF,
这药是针对 IPF 的，
idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis."
特发性肺纤维化 （Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis）。”
Rudy paused for a long time, and then he said,
"That's the disease that took my father's life 15 years ago."
“这是在 15 年前 夺走我父亲生命的疾病。”
Rudy says that this is the moment he fell in love.
With my father.
Even though it was too late for my dad to save his,
he felt that destiny had delivered us this full-circle moment.
In my family, we have a special love for my father's inventions.
And in particular, we have a reverence for his patents.
We have framed patents on the wall in our house.
And there's a recognition in our family that everything I've been able to do --
college, law school, health justice work --
all of it is because America enabled my father
to fulfill his potential as an inventor.
Last year, I met the director of the US Patent Office
for the first time,
and I sent my family a selfie from that office in Virginia.
I got so many emojis back,
you would have thought I had met Beyoncé.
But truth be told,
I was actually there to talk about a problem --
how our outdated patent system is fueling the high cost of medicines
and costing lives.
Today, over two billion people live without access to medicines.
如今，超过 20 亿人 没有渠道获得所需药物。
And against this global crisis,
drug prices are skyrocketing,
including in wealthier countries.
Thirty-four million Americans have lost a family member or a friend
在过去 5 年， 3400 万美国人因此失去了
in the last five years,
not because the treatment didn't exist,
but because they couldn't afford it.
Rising drug costs are pushing families into homelessness,
seniors into bankruptcy
and parents to crowdfunding treatment for their critically ill children.
There are many reasons for this crisis,
but one is the outdated patent system
that America tries to export to the rest of the world.
The original intention behind the patent system
was to motivate people to invent
by rewarding them with a time-limited monopoly.
But today, that intention has been distorted beyond recognition.
Corporations have teams of lawyers and lobbyists
whose sole job is to extend patent protection as long as possible.
And they've kept the patent office busy.
It took 155 years for the US Patent Office
美国专利局花了 155 年的时间
to issue its first five million patents.
来发行其首个 500 万美元的专利。
It took just 27 years for it to issue the next five million.
它又花了 27 年的时间 来发行下一个 500 万美元的专利。
We haven't gotten drastically more inventive.
Corporations have gotten drastically better at gaming the system.
Drug patents have exploded --
between 2006 and 2016, they doubled.
在 2006 至 2016 年间， 专利数量翻倍。
But consider this:
The vast majority of medicines associated with new drug patents
Nearly eight out of 10 are for existing ones,
几乎 10 中有 8 的药品 是现有药物，
like insulin or aspirin.
My organization, a team of lawyers and scientists,
recently conducted an investigation into the 12 best-selling drugs in America.
近期针对美国最畅销的 12 种药物 展开了一个调查。
We found that, on average,
there are 125 patents filed on each medicine.
每一种药物 平均有 125 项专利存档。
Often for things we've known how to do for decades,
like putting two pills into one.
The higher a patent wall a company builds,
the longer they hold on to their monopoly.
And with no one to compete with,
they can set prices at whim.
And because these are medicines
and not designer watches,
we have no choice but to pay.
The patent wall is a strategy to block competition.
Not for the 14 years maximum
that America's founders originally envisioned,
当初设想的最多 14 年，
or the 20 years allowed by law today,
也不是现在法律允许的 20 年，
but for 40 years or more.
而是 40 年，甚至更多。
Meanwhile, prices on these drugs have continued to increase --
68 percent since 2012.
自 2012 ， 68% 的增速。
That's seven times the rate of inflation.
这是货币通货膨胀率的 7 倍速。
And people are struggling or even dying,
because they can't afford the meds.
Now I want to be really clear about something.
This isn't about making the pharmaceutical industry the bad guy.
What I'm talking about today
is whether the system we created to promote progress
is actually working as intended.
Sure, the pharmaceutical companies are gaming the system,
but they're gaming it because they can.
Because we have failed to adapt this system
to meet today's realities.
The government is handing out
one of the most prized rewards in business --
the opportunity to create a product that is protected from competition --
and asking for less and less in return on our behalf.
Imagine awarding 100 Pulitzer Prizes to one author for the same book.
想象为同一本书的一位作者 颁发 100 项普利策奖。
It doesn't have to be this way.
We can create a modern patent system
to meet the needs of a 21st-century society.
来满足 21 世纪的社会需求。
we need to reimagine the patent system to serve the public,
not just corporations.
So how do we do it?
First, we need to stop handing out so many patents.
Back under the Kennedy administration,
in an effort to curb rising drug costs,
a congressman from Tennessee proposed an idea.
"If you want to tweak a drug,
and you want to get another patent on it,
the modified version has to be significantly better, therapeutically,
Because of intense lobbying,
this idea never saw the light of day.
But a reimagined patent system
would resurrect and evolve this simple, yet elegant proposition.
That to get a patent,
you have to invent something substantially better
than what's already out there.
This shouldn't be controversial.
we reserve the big rewards for the big ideas.
We don't give Michelin stars to chefs who just tweak a recipe --
we give them to chefs who change how we think about food.
And yet, we hand out patents worth billions of dollars
for minor changes.
It's time to raise the bar.
we need to change the financial incentives of the Patent Office.
Right now, the revenue of the Patent Office
is directly linked to the number of patents that it grants.
That's like private prisons getting paid more to hold more people --
it naturally leads to more incarceration,
The same is true for patents.
Third, we need more public participation.
Right now, the patent system is like a black box.
It's a two-way conversation between the patent office and industry.
You and I aren't invited to that party.
But imagine if instead,
the Patent Office became a dynamic center for citizen learning and ingenuity,
staffed not just by technical experts and bureaucrats,
but also by great public-health storytellers
with a passion for science.
Regular citizens could get accessible information
about complex technologies
like artificial intelligence or gene editing,
enabling us to participate in the policy conversations
that directly impact our health and lives.
we need to get the right to go to court.
Right now in America, after a patent is granted,
the public has no legal standing.
Only those with a commercial interest, usually other drug companies,
have that right.
But I've witnessed firsthand how lives can be saved
when everyday citizens have the right to go to court.
Back in 2006 in India,
在 2006 年，印度，
my organization worked with patient advocates
to challenge, legally, unjust HIV drug patents,
at a time when so many people were dying,
because medicines were priced out of reach.
We were able to bring down the prices of medicines
by up to 87 percent.
下降 87% 。
On just three drugs,
只是 3 种药物，
we were able to save health systems half a billion dollars.
我们便能为整个医疗卫生体系 节省 5 亿美元。
Now, cases like these can save millions of lives
and billions of dollars.
Imagine if Americans had the right to go to court, too.
And lastly, we need stronger oversight.
We need an independent unit that can serve as a public advocate,
regularly monitoring the activities of the Patent Office
and reporting to Congress.
If a unit like this had existed,
it would have caught, for example, the Silicon Valley company Theranos
它本能早早地揪出 例如一家名为 Theranos 的硅谷公司，
before it got so many patents for blood testing
and landed an evaluation of nine billion dollars,
公司市场估值达 90 亿美元前，
there was no invention there at all.
This kind of accountability is going to become increasingly urgent.
In the age of 23andMe,
在我 23 岁的时候，
important questions are being asked
about whether companies can patent and sell
our genetic information and our patient data.
We need to be part of those conversations
before it's too late.
Our information is being used to create the new therapies.
And when that moment of diagnosis comes for me and my family,
or for you and yours,
are we going to have to crowdfund to save the lives of those we love?
That's not the world I want to live in.
It's not the world I want for my two-year-old son.
这不是我想要我 2 岁儿子 生活的世界。
My dad is growing older now,
and he is still as quietly brilliant and morally directed as ever.
Sometimes people ask us whether things get heated between us:
the patent-holding scientist
and his patent-reforming lawyer daughter.
It's such a profound misunderstanding of what's at stake,
because this is not about scientists versus activists,
因为这与 科学家 vs. 活动家无关，
or invention versus protection.
与发明 vs. 保护无关。
This is about people,
our quest to invent and our right to live.
My dad and I understand that our ingenuity and our dignity
We are on the same side.
It is time to reimagine a patent system
that reflects that knowing.