透明的供应链有助于保护地球 Markus Mutz: How supply chain transparency can help the planet

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演员: Markus Mutz


台词
In almost all aspects of our lives
几乎在我们生活中的方方面面
we have perfect information available instantaneously.
我们都能立马 获得非常全面的信息。
My phone can tell me everything about my finances,
我的手机能随时告诉我 我财务状况的一切,
where precisely I am on a map
我现在处于地图上的什么精确位置
and the best way to my next destination,
以及到下一个目的地的最佳路线,
all with a click of a button.
一切都只需要轻点一次按钮。
But this availability of information and transparency
但是当我们谈论消费者产品的时候,
almost completely disappears when it comes to consumer products.
这种信息的可获得性和透明度 几乎消失不见。
If you go to the seafood counter at your local supermarket,
如果你去当地超市的海鲜档口,
you can probably choose between several different types of fish.
那里有多种不同类型的鱼供你选择。
But chances are, they won't be able to tell you
但是很可能 没有人能告诉你
who caught the fish, where precisely it was caught,
是谁捕的鱼,在哪里捕的鱼,
whether it is sustainable to catch it there
在那里捕鱼 是否符合可持续性原则,
and how it got transported.
以及鱼是怎样被运输到你眼前的。
And that holds true for almost everything we buy.
这对于我们购买的 几乎所有东西都是一样的。
Every can of soup,
每一罐汤,
every piece of meat, every T-shirt.
每一块肉,每一件 T 恤。
We as humans, right now,
作为人类的我们,此时此刻,
are destroying the only thing we really need to survive:
正在一点点破坏 我们赖以生存的唯一的东西:
our planet.
我们的星球。
And most of the horrible problems that we're facing today,
我们目前所面临的 最可怕的问题,
like climate change
比如气候变化
and modern slavery in supply chains,
还有供应链上的现代奴役,
come down to decisions.
都归咎于我们所做的决定。
Human decisions to produce something one way and not another.
当制造商选择了某种方式, 而非另一种方式生产。
And that's how we, as consumers,
这就是为什么 作为消费者的我们
end up making decisions that harm the planet
最终在产品选择上 做出了错误的决定,
or our fellow humans.
于是伤害了我们的星球,
By choosing the wrong products.
或我们的人类同伴。
But I refuse to believe that anybody here in this room,
但是我不愿意相信 在座任何人,
or frankly, anybody on this planet,
或更坦白地说, 这个地球上的任何人,
really wants to buy a product
如果让他自由选择 自己真正想要的产品,
that harms the planet or our fellow humans
他会真的选择购买一个
if given the choice.
能伤害这个星球 或人类同伴的产品。
But you see, choice is a loaded word.
但是你看, 选择是一个很沉重的词。
Choice means there's another option.
选择意味着还有另一个选项。
Choice means you can afford that option.
选择意味着你能负担得起那个选项。
But choice also means
但是选择也意味着
you have enough information to make an informed decision.
你有足够的信息并且 经过充分思考后做出的决定。
And that information nowadays simply just doesn't exist.
而现在我们面临的问题是 这样的信息根本不存在。
Or at least it's really, really hard to access.
或者说获取信息的渠道 少之又少。
But I think this is about to change.
但我认为这一切即将出现转机。
Because we can use technology to solve this information problem.
因为我们可以使用科学技术 来解决这个信息问题。
And many of the specific technologies that we need to do that
解决这个问题我们所需的 很多特定的技术
have become better and cheaper over the recent years,
近年来变得更加先进, 价格也变得可以接受,
and are now ready to be used at scale.
而且已经进入 可以投入大规模应用的阶段。
So, over the past two years,
在过去的两年里,
my team and I have been working
我们团队和 世界上最大的保护组织之一
with one of the world's largest conservation organizations, WWF,
世界自然基金会(WWF)合作,
and we've founded a company called OpenSC,
共同创立了一家 名为 OpenSC 的公司,
where SC stands for supply chain.
其中 SC 为 供应链(Supply Chain)的缩写。
And we believe that by using technology
我们相信:通过技术
we can help to create
我们可以帮助建立起
transparency and traceability in supply chains,
供应链的透明性和可追溯性,
and through that, help to completely revolutionize
随后能彻底颠覆
the way that we buy and also produce products as humans.
人们购买乃至生产产品的方式。
Now, some of this is going to sound a little bit like science fiction,
有些构思听起来 有点像科幻片中的场景,
but it's already happening.
但是这确确实实在发生。
Let me explain.
我来解释一下吧。
So, in order to solve this information problem,
为了解决这个信息的问题,
we need to do three things:
我们需要做三件事:
verify, trace and share.
查核,追溯以及共享。
Verify specific sustainability
利用基于数据的自动化方法
and ethical production claims
来查核特定的可持续性
in a data-based and automated way.
以及伦理生产主张。
Then trace those individual physical products
然后在那些单个实体产品的供应链上
throughout their supply chains,
追溯其源头及去向。
and finally, share that information with consumers
最后和消费者共享这些信息,
in a way that truly gives them a choice
把选择权真正交给他们,
and lets them make consumption decisions
让他们可以作出 符合自己价值取向的
that are more aligned with their values.
消费决策。
I'm going to use a real product
接下来我要用一个 我们已经在供应链上
and a supply chain where we've made all of this a reality already:
已经实现这一设想的 一款的产品来作进一步说明:
a Patagonian toothfish,
南极银鳕鱼,
or Chilean sea bass, as it's called in the US.
在美国我们叫它“智利黑鲈”。
Number one, verify.
第一步,查核。
Verify how something is produced.
查核其生产方式。
But not just by saying, "Trust me, this is good,
并非全凭口头承诺 “相信我,这货真不错,
trust me, we've done all the right things,"
相信我, 我们的生产没有一点问题”,
but by producing evidence for that individual physical product,
而是凭借每个单位 实体产品的生产证明,
and the way it was produced.
以及其生产方式。
By producing evidence
依靠是符合特定的可持续性 及伦理生产主张的
for a specific sustainability or ethical production claim.
生产证明。
So for example, in the case of the fish,
就拿这银鳕鱼举个例子,
has this fish been caught in an area where there's enough of them,
捕获这条鱼的海域里 鱼苗是否充足?
so that it's sustainable to catch it there
也就是说在那里捕鱼 是否符合可持续性原则?
and not in a marine protected area?
而不是在一个 受保护的海域里捕鱼?
So what we're doing here
我们所做的是
is we're taking almost real-time GPS data from the ship --
从正在捕鱼的渔船上
the ship that's fishing --
获取近乎实时的定位数据,
and that tells us where the ship is
这些数据告诉我们船的位置、
and where it's going at what speed.
船速,以及船的去向。
And we can then combine that with other types of data,
接着我们可以把这 和其他类型的数据结合在一起,
like, for example, how deep the sea floor is.
例如海底深度。
And combining all of this information,
结合这些信息之后,
our machine-learning algorithms can then verify, in an automated way,
我们的机器学习算法 就能进行自动查核
whether the ship is only fishing where it's supposed to, or not.
这艘船是否 仅在规定的海域里捕鱼。
And as sensors become cheaper,
随着传感器的价格下降,
we can put them in more places.
我们可以安装更多的传感器。
And that means we can capture more data,
这意味着 我们可以获取更多数据。
and combining that with advancements in data science,
再结合数据科学的发展,
it means that we can now verify
这也就意味着我们现在可以
specific sustainability and ethical production claims
以自动、实时,且持续的方式
in an automated, real-time and ongoing manner.
核查特定的可持续性及伦理生产主张。
And that really lays the basis for this information revolution.
而这正好为供应链的信息革命 奠定了基础。
So, number two, trace.
第二步,追溯。
Trace those individual physical products,
追溯那些单个实体产品,
so that we can truly say
以至于我们可以拍着胸脯说
that the claim that we've verified about a certain product
消费者面前的这个产品
actually belongs to that individual product
和我们已经查核过的产品信息
that we as consumers have right in front of us.
是对得上号的。
Because without that level of traceability,
因为如果没有 该等级追溯工作的支持,
all that we've really verified in the first place
我们第一步所做的 所有查核工作将白费——
is that somebody, somewhere, at some point
也就是谁,在哪里,什么时候
caught a fish in a sustainable way,
用可持续的方式捕过一条鱼,
or didn't harm the employee when asking them to produce a T-shirt,
或者生产一件 T 恤的时候 并没有对员工造成伤害,
or didn't use pesticides when growing a vegetable that didn't actually need it.
或者没有对蔬菜 使用毫无必要的杀虫剂。
Only if I give a product an identity from the start
只有当我从源头开始 就赋予一个产品一个身份,
and then trace it throughout the whole supply chain,
并且在整条供应链上 追踪它,
can this claim and the value that's been created
它的可持续性、伦理生产主张,
by producing it in the right way
以及通过正确方式生产 所创造的价值
truly stay with it.
才是真实存在的。
Now, I've talked about cheaper sensors.
我刚刚谈及的价格变低的传感器。
There are many other technological developments
其实还有很多其他的技术
that make all of this much more possible today than every before.
为眼前的这些想法创造了 前所未有的可能性。
For example, the falling costs of tags.
举个例子,变低的标签成本。
You give a product a name,
当你赋予一个产品一个名字、
a serial number, an identity,
一个序列号、一个身份,
the tag is its passport.
这个标签就是它的通行证。
What you can see here is a toothfish being caught.
这里你看到的是 一条被捕的银鳕鱼。
This is what's called a longline fishery,
这是一种被称为 ”延绳钓“的捕鱼方式,
so the fish are coming up onto the boat on individual hooks.
这些鱼通过单独的鱼钩被拉上船。
And as soon as the fish is on board,
一旦鱼被捕上船,
it is killed, and then after that,
就会被处理,紧接着,
we insert a small tag into the fish's flesh.
我们会把一个小小的标签 放进鱼肉里。
And in that tag, there is an RFID chip with a unique serial number,
在那个标签里,是一个 带有独特序列号的 RFID 芯片,
and that tag follows the fish throughout the whole supply chain
在整条供应链的每个环节里, 这个标签会一直跟着这条鱼,
and makes it really easy to sense its presence
无论在哪个港口、哪辆货车, 还是在哪个加工厂,
at any port, on any truck or in any processing plant.
标签会让人很容易感受到 这些鱼的存在。
But consumers can't really read RFID tags.
但是消费者并不能读取 RFID 标签。
And so, when it comes to filleting and packaging the fish,
所以到切块和打包的环节,
we read the RFID tag and then remove it.
我们读取 RFID 标签, 后并取走它们。
And then we add a unique QR code to the packaging of the fish.
接着在这条鱼的包装上 贴上独有的二维码。
And that QR code then points back to the same information
这个二维码所含的信息 和之前标签的一样——
that we've verified about the fish in the first place.
那是已经经过查核的信息。
And so, depending on the type of product that we're working with,
也就是说 根据我们需要处理的产品类型,
we may use QR codes, bar codes, RFID tags
我们可以使用二维码、 条形码、 RFID 标签,
or other tag technologies.
或者其他标签技术。
But there are also technologies
但是也有一些其他技术
that are at the brink of large-scale breakthrough
可能将会取得大规模突破,
that make tags themselves obsolete.
从而淘汰这些标签技术。
Like, for example,
比如说,
analyzing a product for trace elements
分析一个产品的 各类追溯信息的元素,
that can then tell you quite accurately where it is actually from.
这些信息可以相较准确地 告诉你产品的来源地。
Then there's blockchain.
还有区块链技术。
A decentralized technology can act as a catalyst for this revolution.
这种去中心式技术可以 催化这场革命。
Because it can help mitigate some of the trust issues
因为它可以缓解
that are inherent to giving people information
人们提供信息时必会产生的 一些信用问题,
and then asking them to change their consumption behavior
接着基于这些信息,
because of that information.
建议人们改变自己的消费行为。
And so, we use blockchain technology
我们也可以利用区块链技术
where it adds value to what we're doing.
为我们目前的工作进行增加价值。
But importantly,
更重要的是,
we don't let the limitations that this technology still has today,
我们不再让目前的技术限制,
like, for example, with regards to scaling,
例如就规模化而言的 技术限制,
we don't let that stand in our way.
阻挠我们前进的步伐。
And that brings us to the third point.
这也就引出第三步。
Share.
共享。
How to share the information that we've verified and tracked
如何共享我们经过核查 并追溯的信息?
about where a product is from, how it was produced
关于产地和生产方式的信息?
and how it got to where it is?
以及物流信息?
How to share this information
根据产品的不同,
is really different from product to product.
以及购买场景的不同,
And different from where you buy it.
信息共享的方式不尽相同。
You behave differently in those situations.
在不同的场景下, 你的行为会存在差异。
You are stressed and time-poor in the supermarket.
比如说在超市里的你 精神紧张,缺乏时间。
Or with short attention span over dinner,
或者在餐桌上心猿意马,
because your date is so cute.
因为你的约会对象是那么地迷人。
Or you are critical and inquisitive
或者在网上 购买高金额商品时,
when researching for a larger purchase online.
你往往很警惕,问题很多。
And so for our fish,
对于我们的银鳕鱼,
we've developed a digital experience
我们构建了一套数字化体验——
that works when buying the fish in a freezer in a fish specialty store
你从店铺的冰柜中 拿出并购买这条银鳕鱼时,
and that gives you all of the information about the fish and its journey.
你可以获取到有关这条鱼 及其生产历程的所有信息。
But we also worked with a restaurant
同时我们也和餐馆合作
and developed a different digital experience
构建另一套不同的数字化体验——
that only summarizes the key facts about the fish and its journey,
仅仅总结了这条鱼 及其生产历程的关键信息,
and works better in a dinner setting
更符合就餐的场景,
and, hopefully, there doesn't annoy your date too much.
也希望不会打扰到你的 约会对象。
Now, that brings us full circle.
这就形成了一个完整的闭环。
We've verified that the fish was caught
我们查核这条鱼被捕的环境
in an area where it's sustainable to do so.
是否符合可持续性原则。
We've then traced it throughout the entire supply chain
接着在整条供应链上追溯它,
to maintain its identity and all the information that's attached to it.
以保留它的身份及所有相关信息。
And then, we've shared that information with consumers
然后和消费者共享这些信息,
in a way that gives them a choice
好让他们可以选择,
and lets them make consumption decisions
而且是让他们可以做出
that are more in line with their values.
更符合自己价值取向的 消费决策。
Now, for this fish example, this is already rolled out at scale.
这个银鳕鱼的案例 已经进入规模化实施阶段了。
This season,
这个季度,
the entire fleet of the world's largest toothfish fishing company,
世界上最大的银鳕鱼公司的 一整支捕鱼队,
Austral Fisheries,
南方渔业(Austral Fisheries),
is tagging every single fish that they catch
在每一条他们捕的鱼上 都添置了标签,
and that ends up in their premium branded "Glacier 51" product.
最终会出现在他们的高端品牌 ”冰河51号“的产品里。
And you can already buy this fish.
你已经可以在市面上买到这些鱼了。
And with it, you can have all of the information I talked about today,
有了这个标签,你可以获得 我今天提到的所有信息,
and much more,
附在你可能购买的每一条鱼
attached to each individual fish or portion of the fish that you may buy.
或者每一块鱼肉上的 更多信息。
But this is not a fish or seafood thing.
这不仅仅是针对鱼类或者海鲜的方案。
We're working on many, many different commodities and products
我们还在开发更多的、 针对不同商品和产品的,
and their supply chains across the globe.
及其全球供应链的方案。
From dairy to fruit and vegetables,
从乳制品到蔬果,
to nonfood products made out of wood.
再到木制非食物制品。
As a consumer, all of this may sound like a huge burden,
对于一名消费者来说, 这一切听起来好像是一个巨大的包袱,
because you don't have time to look at all of this information
因为你每一次买东西,
every time you buy something.
并不是都有时间 去看这么庞大的信息。
And I don't expect you to,
我也不希望你这么做,
because you'll have help with that.
因为你将不需要靠自己完成。
In the future, we'll leave the decision of which specific product to buy
在未来,我们会把购买产品的决策
increasingly up to machines.
更多地交给机器。
An algorithm will know enough about you
交给一个非常懂你的算法
to make those decisions for you, so you don't have to.
来为你做决策。
And maybe it will even do a better job at it.
说不定它甚至有出色的表现。
In a recent study, 85 percent of those
在最近的研究中,
buying a product through a virtual assistant
通过虚拟助理来购买产品的 85% 的消费者说,
said that they, on occasion,
他们偶尔
actually went with the top product recommendation
会直接采纳虚拟助理的推荐
of that virtual assistant,
进行购买,
rather than the specific product or brand
而不是选择一开始他们奔着去的
that they set out to buy in the first place.
某个产品或者品牌。
You just say you need toilet paper,
你只需要说你想要厕纸,
it's then an algorithm that decides which brand, price point
那么将会有个算法 来决定哪个品牌、什么价位,
or whether you go with recycled or not.
或者你喜不喜欢再生纸。
Well, nowadays this is usually based on what you bought in the past,
现在的这些算法通常 建立在你过往的购买行为之上,
or whoever pays the most to the company behind the virtual assistant.
或是建立在那些通过虚拟助理 给企业带来最大营收的人群之上。
But why shouldn't that be also based on your values?
那基于你价值取向的算法 又有何不可?
Knowing that you want to buy planet-friendly
知道你想要购买有益于地球的产品
and knowing whether and how much you're willing and able to pay for that.
知道你购买欲和购买力有多强,
Now, that will make it easy and seamless,
将会使一切变得简单 且无缝衔接起来,
but still based on granular effects and data
但这仍然 基于颗粒效应和数据
to choose the right products.
来选择正确的产品。
Not by necessarily doing it yourself
不一定需要你亲力亲为
but by asking an algorithm
只需通过询问算法,
that knows how much you care about this planet.
这个明白你有多关心这个星球的算法。
Not by necessarily doing it yourself
不一定需要你亲力亲为
but by asking an algorithm
只需通过询问算法,
that is never time-poor or distracted,
这个永远不会 没时间、不在状态,
or with short attention span because of the cute date,
且因为你迷人的约会对象, 仅需要很少注意力的算法。
and that knows how much you care about this planet
这个算法知道 你有多么关心这个星球
and the people living on it,
以及居住在这个星球上的人,
by asking that algorithm to look at all of that information for you
只需要让这个算法 帮你看看所有产品信息
and to decide for you.
然后帮你做决策。
If we have reliable and trustworthy information like that
如果我们拥有 这样可靠且可信的信息,
and the right systems that make use of it,
以及能利用这些信息的 正确的系统,
consumers will support those who are doing the right thing
消费者可以支持 那些行正确之事的人,
by producing products in a sustainable and ethical way.
支持他们采用可持续性的, 符合伦理的生产方式。
They will support them every time
每一次选购他们的产品
by choosing their goods over others.
就是对于他们的支持和肯定。
And that means that good producers and processors and retailers
也就意味着优良的 产品制造商、加工商和零售商
will get rewarded.
都会得到嘉奖。
And bad actors will be forced to adjust their practices
而居心不良的从业者 将会被迫调整自己的作为,
or get out of business.
或者被淘汰出局。
And we need that.
这正是我们所需要的。
If we want to continue to live together on this beautiful planet,
如果我们希望继续 在这个美丽的星球上共存,
we really need it.
我们真的需要这样的改变。
Thank you.
谢谢大家。
(Applause)
(掌声)