为什么“生物制造”将是下一次工业革命 Suzanne Lee: Why "biofabrication" is the next industrial revolution

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演员: Suzanne Lee


台词
I started life as a fashion designer,
刚开始我是一名时尚设计师,
working closely with textile designers and fabric suppliers.
和纺织品设计师与 面料供应商密切合作。
But today, I can no longer see or talk to my new collaborators,
但今天,我已看不见我的 新晋合作伙伴,也没法与它们对话,
because they're in the soil beneath our feet,
因为它们在脚下的泥土里,
on the shelves of our supermarkets
在超市的货架上,
and in the beer I'm going to drink when I finish this talk.
以及这次演讲后 我将畅饮的啤酒里。
I'm talking about microbes
我指的是微生物,
and designing with life.
以及用生物进行设计。
Fifteen years ago,
十五年前,
I completely changed both what I worked with
在和一位生物学家 启发式的合作后,
and how I worked
我彻底改变了工作的对象
after a revelatory collaboration with a biologist.
以及工作的方式。
Our project gave me a different perspective on life,
我们的项目给了我 看待生命的不同视角,
introducing a whole new world of possibility
围绕我们如何 设计与制造物品
around how we can design and make things.
打开了充满可能性 的全新世界。
I discovered a radical manufacturing proposition:
我发现了一种 变革式的制造理念:
biofabrication.
生物制造。
Literally, fabricating with biology.
如字面意义,用生物学制造。
What does that mean?
这是什么意思?
Well, instead of processing plants, animals or oil
不通过加工植物、 动物或原油
to make consumer materials,
获得消费品材料,
we might grow materials directly with living organisms.
而是直接用生物体 培养材料。
In what many are terming "the Fourth Industrial Revolution,"
在很多人称为“第四次 工业革命”的进程中,
we're thinking about the new factories as being living cells.
我们在考虑将活细胞 作为新的工厂。
Bacteria, algae, fungi, yeast:
细菌、藻类、真菌、酵母:
our latest design tools include those of biotechnology.
我们最新的设计工具 包括了生物科技。
My own journey in biofabrication
我自己的生物制造旅程
started with a project called "Biocouture."
是由一个名为“Biocouture” (生物服装)的项目开始的。
The provocation was that instead of growing a plant, like cotton,
其发想在于,并不是 花费几个月时间
in a field over several months,
在地里栽培作物,比如棉花;
we could use microbes to grow a similar cellulose material in a lab
而是只用几天时间, 在实验室里用微生物
in a few days.
培养出类似的纤维材料。
Using a certain species of bacteria in a nutrient-rich liquid,
在营养丰富的培养液里 用一特定种类的细菌,
we fermented threads of cellulose
我们将纤维素的线发酵,
that self-organized into a sheet of fabric.
它们自行编组 形成了一张布料。
I dried the fabric I had grown
我晾干自己培养的布料后,
and cut and sewed it into a range of garments, shoes and bags.
把它剪开,缝制成了 各种衣物、鞋子和手袋。
In other words, in one lab we grew materials
换句话说, 在实验室里,
and turned them into a range of products
我们培养材料并把它们 转换成一系列产品
in a matter of days.
只需要几天时间。
And this is in contrast to currents methods of fabric production,
与之对比鲜明的是 当今的织物生产工艺:
where a plant is grown,
种植作物,
just the cotton part is harvested,
仅收获棉花部分,
processed into a yarn,
处理制成纱线,
woven into a fabric
纺织成面料,
and then potentially shipped across oceans
可能被海运至各地,
before being cut and sewn into a garment.
再裁剪、缝制成衣物。
All of that can take months.
所有这些工序可能会 花上好几个月的时间。
So these prototypes indicated a field
因此,生物制造的原型显示了
offering significant resource efficiencies.
这个领域能显著提升资源效率。
From reducing the water, energy and chemistry needed
从减少生产材料的工序
in the production of a material,
所需的水、能源和化学品,
through to generating zero waste,
到实现零废料,
we grew fabrics to finished form --
我们培养织物,使其生成成品——
if you like, "biological additive manufacture."
如果想的话,可以称之为 “生物添加制造”。
Through biofabrication,
通过生物制造,
I had replaced many intensive man-made steps
我可以用一个生物工序步骤
with one biological step.
取代许多步高强度的人工工艺。
And as I engaged with this living system,
当我开始使用这个生物系统,
it transformed my design thinking.
它便转变了我的设计理念。
Here was biology, with no intervention from me
这就是生物学,
other than designing initial conditions for growth,
除了设计培养的初始条件, 不需我多加干预,
efficiently producing a useful, sustainable material.
就能高效地生产有用的、 可持续的材料。
So now I can't help but see all materials through the lens of biofabrication.
现在,我无法不透过生物制造 的镜片去审视所有材料。
In fact, there's a growing global community of innovators
事实上,已经有一个日益壮大 的全球性革新者团体,
rethinking materials with biology.
正在用生物学重新思考材料。
Multiple companies are now growing mushroom materials,
若干公司现在正在培养蘑菇材料,
but not literally mushrooms --
并不是字面意义的蘑菇——
using mycelium, which is the root system of fungi,
而是使用菌类的根系统,菌丝体,
to bind together agricultural byproducts.
将农业副产品结合在一起。
It's a process that's been described as "nature's glue."
这个过程被称为“自然胶水”。
A common way to do this is to take a 3-D mold,
常见做法是在三维模具中
fill it with a waste crop like corn stalks or hemp,
填满玉米杆或亚麻籽 之类的废弃作物,
add water,
加上水,
wait a few days for the mycelium to grow throughout,
等几天让菌丝体充分生长,
remove the mold,
移除模具,
and you're left with a grown 3-D form.
就得到了长成的三维形体。
Incredibly, we can grow all kinds of structures
不可思议的是,我们可以用生物体
using living organisms,
培养各式各样的结构,
from foams that can replace plastics in footwear,
从可以取代鞋履中塑料的泡沫,
to leather-like materials without animals.
到不需要动物的类皮革材料。
Furniture, flooring -- all are currently being prototyped.
家具、地板—— 这些都在试制过程中。
Fungi are able to grow materials that are naturally fire retardant,
真菌可以生成 天然耐火材料,
without any chemicals.
不需要化学添加剂。
They're naturally hydrophobic,
它们天生就具疏水性,
meaning they won't absorb water.
意思是它们不会吸收水分。
They have higher melt temperatures than plastics.
它们比塑料的熔点要高。
Polystyrene can take thousands of years to degrade.
聚苯乙烯要花费数千年才能降解。
Mushroom packaging materials
蘑菇制包装材料
can be naturally composted in your back garden
只需 30 天
in as little as 30 days.
就能在你的后花园里 变成天然堆肥。
Living organisms are transforming waste
生物体正在将废弃物
into cost-competitive, performance-matching materials
转换成成本低廉、性能相当的材料,
that can start to replace plastics
可以开始取代塑料
and other CO2-emitting materials.
和其他排放二氧化碳的材料。
And once we start growing materials with living organisms,
而当我们开始用生物培养材料后,
it starts to make previous methods of manufacture seem illogical.
它便开始让先前的制造工艺 显得不合逻辑。
Take the humble house brick.
比方说平凡的砖块。
The cement industry generates around eight percent
全球 8% 的二氧化碳排放
of global CO2 emissions.
是由水泥行业产生的。
That's more than all the planes and ships each year.
这比每年飞机和轮船排放得都多。
The cement process requires materials to be fired in a kiln
加工水泥需要在水泥窑里烧制材料,
at over 2,000 degrees Fahrenheit.
达到 1100 摄氏度以上的高温。
Compare this to bioMASON.
与之相比的是 bioMASON (生物泥瓦匠)。
They use a soil microbe to transform loose aggregates,
他们使用一种土壤微生物,
like sand or crushed stone,
将砂砾或碎石之类的碎颗粒
into a biofabricated, or biocement, brick.
转换成生物制造的砖头, 又称生物水泥砖。
Their process happens at room temperature,
这个反应过程在室温进行,
in just a couple of days.
只需要几天时间。
Think: hydroponics for bricks.
想象一下:水培法制砖。
An irrigation system feeds nutrient-rich water
一个灌溉系统把富含营养的水
to trays of bricks
喂给接种了细菌的
that have been inoculated with bacteria.
一盘盘砖。
The bacteria produce crystals
细菌产生晶体
that form around each grain of sand,
包裹住每一粒沙,
locking together all the loose particles
将这些碎颗粒紧紧锁住,
to form a solid brick.
形成一块结实的砖。
We can now grow construction materials
我们现在能像自然那样优雅地
in the elegant way nature does,
培养建筑材料,
just like a coral reef.
就像珊瑚礁一样。
And these biofabricated bricks are nearly three times stronger
这些生物制造的砖块 比混凝土砖
than a concrete block.
坚固近三倍。
And in stark contrast to traditional cement production,
而与传统水泥工艺 对比鲜明的是,
they store more carbon than they make.
它们贮存的碳比产生的碳还多。
So if we could replace the 1.2 trillion fired bricks
如果我们能用生物制造的砖头
that are made each year
取代每年烧制的
with biofabricated bricks,
1.2 万亿块炉砖,
we could reduce CO2 emissions
那么我们每年就能减少
by 800 million tons every year.
8 亿吨二氧化碳排放。
(Applause)
(掌声)
Beyond growing materials with living organisms,
除了用生物培养材料,
we're even starting to design products
我们甚至开始设计
that encourage their growth.
鼓励它们生长的产品。
And this comes from the realization
这是由于意识到了
that the very thing we've been trying to marginalize -- life --
我们试图边缘化的事物,即生物,
might actually be our greatest collaborator.
恰恰可能是我们最有力的合作者。
To that end, we've been exploring all the ways
为此,我们在探索
that we can grow healthy microbes in our own ecosystems.
能在我们自己的生态系统中 培养健康微生物的各种办法。
A great example of this is architects
一个很好的例子是,建筑师们
who are imagining the skin of a building
在设想让建筑的表皮
to function like the bark of a tree.
像树皮一样运作。
But not as a cosmetic green layer.
但并不是作为美观的绿化层。
They're designing architectural barks
他们在设计建筑用树皮
as hosts for evolving ecologies.
作为演变生态的宿主。
These surface structures are designed to invite life in.
这些表层结构的设计 欢迎生物入住。
And if we applied the same energy we currently do suppressing forms of life
如果我们将现在用于 抑制生物的能量
towards cultivating life,
用在培育生命上,
we'd turn the negative image of the urban jungle
我们就能把都市森林的负面形象
into one that literally embodies a thriving, living ecosystem.
转换成承载了生机盎然 的生态系统的图景。
By actively encouraging surface interactions with healthy microbes,
通过积极地鼓励与健康微生物 在表层的互动,
we could improve passive climate control,
我们可以改善被动气候调控,
stormwater management
雨水管理,
and even reduce CO2 emissions
甚至能通过减少为 建筑物制冷或制热的能源,
by lowering the energy used to heat or cool our buildings.
降低二氧化碳排放。
We're just beginning to realize the potential
我们才刚刚开始意识到
of nature-based technologies.
基于自然的科技的潜力。
I'm excited that we're starting to design and biofabricate
我们正开始设计并用生物制造 一个崭新的材料世界,
a new material world.
对此我感到十分激动。
It's one that moves away from the exploitation
这种科技远离
of nonrenewable resources
对不可再生资源的滥用,
to working with the original, renewable life.
转而与原始的、可再生的生命合作。
Instead of designing out life,
我们不是将生物排除于设计外,
we're designing with it and for it.
而是与生物一起设计, 为生物进行设计。
Packaging, fashion, footwear, furniture, construction --
包装、时尚、鞋履、家具、建筑——
biofabricated products can be grown close to centers of demand,
生物制造的产品可以在 接近需求中心的地方进行培养,
with local resources, less land, energy,
使用当地资源,占地与耗能更少,
and even harnessing industrial waste streams.
甚至能利用工业废料流。
It used to be that the tools of biotechnology
曾经,生物科技的工具
were the preserve of powerful,
只是强大的跨国化学与 生物科技公司
multinational chemical and biotech companies.
的专属品。
In the last century, we expected material innovation
在上个世纪, 我们期待的是
to come from the likes of DuPont, Dow, BASF.
由陶氏杜邦、陶氏化学、 巴斯夫集团带来的材料革新。
But this 21st-century material revolution is being led by start-ups
但这次 21 世纪的材料革命, 其发起者是
with small teams and limited capital.
团队小、资金有限的创业公司。
And by the way, not all their founders have science degrees.
顺便提一下,它们的创始人 并不全是理科出身。
They include artists, architects and designers.
其中包括了艺术家、 建筑师、设计师。
Over a billion dollars has already been invested
生物制造消费者产品
in start-ups biofabricating consumer products.
的创业公司已经吸纳了 超过十亿美元的投资。
I don't think we have a choice but to biofabricate our future.
我觉得,我们没有比生物制造 的未来更好的选择。
From the jacket you're wearing
从你穿着的夹克,
to the chair you're sitting in
到你坐着的椅子,
to the home you live in,
到你居住的房屋,
your designed material world shouldn't compromise your health
设计出的材料世界 不应损害你的健康,
or that of our planet.
或者地球的健康。
If materials can't be recycled
如果材料无法回收利用
or naturally composted at home,
或在家里自然降解,
we should reject them.
我们应当拒绝它们。
I'm committed to making this future a reality
我将致力于实现这样的未来,
by shining a light on all the amazing work
为此我会关注今天正在进行的
being done today
所有令人叹服的工作,
and by facilitating more interactions
并促进设计师、科学家、 投资者与品牌
between designers, scientists, investors and brands.
之间的更多互动。
Because we need a material revolution,
因为我们需要一次材料革命,
and we need it now.
就在当下。
Thank you.
谢谢。
(Applause)
(掌声)