一个数字化的政府是什么样的? Anna Piperal: What a digital government looks like

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演员: Anna Piperal


台词
Almost 30 years ago,
大约 30 年前,
my country was facing the need to rebuild everything from scratch.
我的国家面临着 在废墟中重建的需要。
After years of Soviet occupation,
在苏联多年的占领后,
Estonia regained its independence, but we were left with nothing.
爱沙尼亚重获了独立, 但我们却一无所有。
No infrastructure, no administration, no legal code.
没有基础设施, 没有行政机构,没有法律条文。
Organizational chaos.
面对治理上的混乱,
Out of necessity,
必需品的缺乏,
the state leaders back then had to make some daring choices.
当时的国家领导人 需要做出一些大胆的选择。
The ones that our country could afford.
这些选择还得是 我们国家能够承受的。
There was a lot of experimentation and uncertainty
当时有许多的试验 和不确定性,
but also a bit of luck involved,
也掺杂了一些运气,
particularly in the fact that we could count on a number
幸运的是,我们可以依靠
of brilliant visionaries,
许多优秀的有远见的人,
cryptographers and engineers.
密码学家和工程师。
I was just a kid back then.
当时我还只是个孩子。
Today, we are called the most digital society on earth.
现在,我们已被称为 地球上最数字化的社会。
I'm from Estonia,
我来自爱沙尼亚。
and we've been declaring taxes online since 2001.
我们自 2001 年起 就开始在网上报税。
We have been using digital identity and signature since 2002.
我们自 2002 年起就开始 使用电子身份认证和签名。
We've been voting online since 2005.
我们自 2005 年起 就开始线上投票。
And for today, pretty much the whole range of the public services
至于现在,我们在网上 可以进行你能想到的
that you can imagine:
几乎所有的公共服务:
education, police, justice, starting a company,
教育,治安, 司法,创立公司,
applying for benefits, looking at your health record
申请福利, 查看健康报告
or challenging a parking ticket --
或者申诉违停罚单——
that's everything that is done online.
这所有的事都能在网上完成。
In fact, it's much easier to tell you
实际上,告诉你们三件
what are the three things we cannot yet do online.
我们还不能线上完成的事 反而更容易一些。
We have to show up to pick up our ID documents,
我们需要当面领取身份证件,
get married or divorced,
办理结婚和离婚手续,
or sell real estate.
或者售卖房产。
That's pretty much it.
大概就只有这些。
So, that's why don't freak out
所以,当我告诉你们,
when I tell you that every year
每年我都迫不及待地
I can't wait to start doing my tax declaration.
要做我的纳税申报时, 别被吓到。
(Laughter)
(笑声)
Because all I have to do
因为我所要做的,
is sit on my couch with a mobile phone,
仅仅是拿着手机坐在沙发上,
swipe a few pages with prefilled data on income and deductions
翻看已经填好收入 和减税额的网页,
and hit submit.
然后点击提交。
After three minutes,
三分钟之后,
I'm looking at the tax return amount.
纳税申报金额就会显示在页面上。
It actually feels like a quite rewarding experience.
这一过程其实还挺有成就感的。
No tax advisors,
不用税务顾问,
no collecting receipts,
不用收集发票,
no doing the math.
不需要繁琐的计算。
And have I mentioned that I have not visited a state office
我有提到近七年来我都没有
for almost seven years?
进过一家国家办公厅吗?
Indeed, one of the features of the modern life
的确,现代社会的其中一个特征——
that has no reason to exist anymore,
迷宫一样复杂的官僚主义,
considering technological possibilities of today,
在现今的科技条件下
is the labyrinth of bureaucracy.
已经没理由继续存在下去了。
We've almost got rid of it completely in Estonia,
在一个已数字化政府的协调下,
in an effort coordinated by the government that has also digitized itself.
爱沙尼亚已经几乎完全脱离了它。
For instance, cabinet of ministers' work in e-Cabinet is absolutely paperless.
例如,内阁部长们在 电子内阁中的工作是完全无纸化的。
The central idea behind this development
这种发展背后的中心思想
is transformation of the state role
是国家角色的转变
and digitalization of trust.
和政府公信力的数字化。
Think about it.
想想看,
In most countries, people don't trust their governments.
在大多数国家, 人民不相信他们的政府。
And the governments don't trust them back.
政府反过来也不相信民众。
And all the complicated paper-based formal procedures
所有繁杂的纸质正规程序
are supposed to solve that problem.
理应解决这个问题。
Except that they don't.
但是它们并没有。
They just make life more complicated.
它们让生活变得更加复杂了。
I believe Estonian experience is showing that technology can be the remedy
我相信爱沙尼亚的经验 说明了科技可以成为
for getting the trust back,
重建政府公信力的良策,
while creating an efficient,
同时建立一个高效的,
user-centric service delivery system
以用户为中心的服务系统,
that actively responds to citizens' needs.
能主动满足公民的需求。
We did not do it by digitizing bureaucracy as it is.
我们并不仅是 把官僚制度数字化了,
But by rather agreeing on a few strong, common principles,
还在一些强硬,普遍的 原则上达成了共识,
redesigning rules and procedures,
重新制定了规则和办公流程,
getting rid of unnecessary data collection
摆脱了不必要的数据收集
and task duplication,
以及重复的任务,
and becoming open and transparent.
并且变得公开透明。
Let me give you a glimpse
让我来带你们了解一下
into some of the key e-Estonia design principles today.
现如今爱沙尼亚 电子服务的核心设计原则。
First, it is essential to guarantee privacy and confidentiality
首先,保障数据和信息的 隐私和保密性
of data and information.
十分重要。
This is achieved through a strong digital identity
这是通过强大可靠的 电子身份证实现的。
that is issued by the state
该证件由政府颁发,
and compatible with everything.
并且在所有地方都有效。
In fact, every Estonian has one.
实际上,所有的爱沙尼亚 公民都有一个。
The identity is doubled with a strong digital signature
这个身份被一个 电子签名双重强化,
that is accepted, used and legally binding
在爱沙尼亚和欧盟国家
both in Estonia and the European Union.
都被认可,允许使用, 并具有法律约束力。
When the system can properly and securely identify who is using it,
这个系统能恰当 并安全地验证使用者的身份,
after logging in, it will provide access to the personal data of the citizen
在用户登录后, 提供公民的私人信息,
and all the public services within one tool,
并且能让使用者在一个工具中 访问所有的公共服务,
and allow to authorize anything by signing digitally.
还提供所有服务的 电子签名授权功能。
A second principle, and one of the most transformative,
第二种,也是其中 最具改革效力的一个原则,
is called "Once only."
叫做“仅此一次"。
It means that the state cannot ask for the same data
意思是国家对于同样的信息
more than once,
只能征求一次,
nor can store it in more than one place.
并且只能在一个地方进行存储。
For instance,
比如,
if you've already provided your birth or marital certificate
如果你已经 向人口登记处提供了
to the population registry,
你的出生或结婚证明,
this is the only place where this data is going to be held.
那就将是这项信息唯一 能被保存的地方。
And no other institution will be ever asking for it again.
没有其他任何机构会 再一次向你征求该信息。
Once only is a very powerful rule,
“仅此一次”是一个 非常有效的规定。
as it defines the whole structure of the data collection in a country,
因为它定义了这个国家 整个的信息收集结构,
what information is collected
哪些信息已被收集,
and who is responsible for maintaining it,
谁在负责保管它,
making sure we avoid centralization of data,
确保我们能避免 信息的集中化管理,
duplication of data,
信息的重复采集,
and guarantee that it's actually up to date.
并确保数据能被及时更新。
This distributed approach also avoids the problem
这种分布式的举措同时也避免了
of the single point of failure.
单点故障 (即会整体故障)。
But since the data cannot be replicated,
但由于信息不能被复制,
or collected more than once,
或是被收集超过一次,
it means that the design has to keep in mind
这意味着整个设计需要确保
secure and robust access to that information at all times,
能随时随地提供安全 和稳定的信息获取功能,
so the public institution can offer a service.
以保证公共机构能提供相应服务。
This is exactly the role of the data exchange platform
而这也是自 2001 年被启用
called the X-Road
的数据交换平台 X-Road
that has been in use since 2001.
的具体作用。
Just like a highway,
它就像信息高速公路一样,
it connects public sector databases and registries,
将公共部门的数据库和登记处
local municipalities and businesses,
与地方政府和企业进行连接,
organizing a real-time, secure and regulated data exchange,
组成了一个实时,安全, 管理规范的信息交换系统,
saving an auditable trace after each move.
在每次操作后都会保留 一个可被查证的路径。
Here's a screenshot of a live feed
这是实时页面的一张截图,
showing all the requests performed on the X-Road
显示了 X-Road 的所有服务请求
and all the services that it actually facilitates.
和它所简化的所有服务。
And this is the real picture
这是包含了真实数据的图片,
of all the connections between public and private sector databases.
显示了公有和私有部门 数据库间的所有连接,
As you can see,
正如你所看到的,
there is no central database whatsoever.
并不存在任何的中央数据库。
Confidentiality and privacy are definitely very important.
保密性与隐私绝对是相当重要的。
But in the digital world,
但是在数字化世界中,
reliability and integrity of information
信息的可靠和完整性
is just critical for operations.
对于操作来说也同样重要。
For instance,
比如,
if someone changes your medical health record,
如果有人在你和你的医生 都不知道的情况下
let's say allergies,
改动了你的医学健康档案,
without you or your doctor knowing,
比如过敏信息,
treatment could be deadly.
那么治疗方案可能会是致命的。
That's why in a digital society, a system like an Estonian one,
这就是为什么在一个像爱沙尼亚 一样的数字化社会和系统中,
when there's almost no paper originals,
当几乎没有纸质原件,
there's almost only digital originals,
几乎只有电子原件时,
integrity of data,
信息的完整性,
data exchange rules, software components
信息交换的规则,软件部件
and log files is paramount.
还有日志文件都是至关重要的。
We use a form of blockchain that we invented back in 2007,
我们通过在 2007 年, 当区块链还并不为人所知时,
way before blockchain even became a thing,
研发出的类似的数据库
to check and guarantee the integrity of data in real time.
来实时核查与确保 数据的完整性。
Blockchain is our auditor
区块链是我们的审计员,
and a promise that no access to the data
确保所有的信息获取和操作
or data manipulation remains unrecorded.
都被记录备案。
Data ownership is another key principle in the design of the system.
信息所有权是系统设计中的 另一个核心原则。
Aren't you worried by the fact that governments, tech companies
要是政府,科技公司 还有世界上其他的企业
and other businesses around the world
宣称他们收集到的你的信息
claim data they've collected about you is theirs,
是属于他们的,并且拒绝提供 那些信息的获取渠道,
generally refuse to give access to that information,
还无法证明它是如何被使用
and often fail to prove how it was used
或是共享给了第三方,
or shared with third parties?
你们难道不会担心吗?
I don't know, for me it seems like a quite disturbing situation.
对我来说,这听上去像是 一个相当令人不安的情况。
The Estonian system is based on the principle
爱沙尼亚的系统所基于的原则是,
that an individual is the owner of the data collected about him,
个体才是个人信息的拥有者,
thus has an absolute right to know what information is collected
享有知晓哪些信息被采集
and who has been accessing it.
和信息采集人员信息的绝对权利。
Every time a policeman, a doctor or any state officer
每当警察,医生 或者任何的国家官员
is accessing personal information of the citizens online,
在网上获取了公民的个人信息,
first they only get to access it after logging in
系统首先会确保 他们只能在登录后查看,
to the information they're authorized to see to do their job.
并且只能查看他们已被授权的, 完成工作所必须的信息。
And secondly, every time they're making requests,
其次,他们每次关于信息获取的申请,
this is saved in a log file.
都会被记录在日志文档中。
This detailed log file is part of the state public services
这个详细的日志文档 是国家公共服务的一部分,
and allows real transparency,
确保了信息获取的透明。
making sure no privacy violation will remain unnoticed to the citizen.
保证了公民能够知晓 任何侵犯他们隐私的行为。
Now, of course, this is only a simplified summary
当然,这只是对 爱沙尼亚数字化体系
of all the design principles that e-Estonia is built on.
所基于的所有原则的简单概括。
And now, government is building up
现在,政府正在进一步努力
to get ready for use of artificial intelligence
为人工智能的使用做准备,
and building a whole new generation of public services --
并将建立全新一代的公共服务——
proactive services
可以根据人们
that would activate seamlessly
现实生活中
based on different life situations that people might be in,
所处的不同情况,比如, 生孩子,失业,或者建立企业,
such as childbirth, unemployment or starting a business.
提供无缝的,积极主动的服务。
Now, of course,
当然了,
running a digital society with no paper backup
一个没有纸质支撑的数字化社会
can be an issue, right?
也可能存在某些问题。
Even though we trust our systems to be solid,
即使我们相信我们的体系是可靠的,
but one can never be too cautious as we experienced back in 2007,
但是谨慎一点总没错, 正如我们在 2007 年所经历的
when the first cyberincident happened,
第一次网络事故,
and it literally blocked part of our networks,
直接导致部分网络的瘫痪,
making access to the services impossible for hours.
使得我们几个小时 都无法获取公共服务。
We survived.
我们当时挺过去了。
But this event put cybersecurity at the very top of agenda,
但是那次事件让我们 在平台的强化和备份方面
both in terms of strengthening the platform and backing it up.
都把网络安全放在了 一切工作事项的首位。
So how do you back up a country-wide system in a small state
那么该如何将一个 全国范围的系统备份在一个
where everything is super close?
让所有信息唾手可得的小型区域呢?
Well for instance, you can export a copy of the data
比如说,你可以 把信息拷贝并输出
outside the country territory
到国家领土之外的地方,
to an extraterritorial space of an embassy.
到使馆有治外法权的地区。
Today, we have those data embassies
现在,这种数据使馆
that are holding the most critical digital assets of Estonia,
掌握着爱沙尼亚 最重要的数字资产,
guaranteeing continuity of operations,
确保了操作的持续性,
protection of our data,
和信息的保护,
and most importantly, our sovereignty.
当然了,还有最重要的, 我们的主权。
Even in case of a physical attack on our territory.
即使是在我们国家的 领土遭到了实体袭击时。
Some of you might be thinking by now:
现在你们中的一些可能会想:
Where are the downsides?
那这个系统的缺点有哪些?
Well, going all digital
坦白地说,
is administratively, and let's be honest, financially more efficient.
全方位数字化 在管理和财政方面更高效。
Interfacing primarily with computer systems
主要通过电脑系统来进行操作
might create an impression that the human factor,
可能会让人们觉得人为因素,
elected politicians
比如选举政客,
and participating in democratic processes
参与民主活动
is somehow less important.
变得并没有那么重要了。
And there are also some people
也有一些人
who feel threatened by pervasive technology
担心科技的广泛普及可能会导致
that might make their skills obsolete.
他们的技能被时代所淘汰。
So all in all, unfortunately,
总而言之,不幸的是,
running a country on a digital platform
用数字化平台治理国家
has not saved us from political power struggles
并没有让我们避免政权上的斗争
and polarization in the society,
和社会的两级分化,
as we have seen in the last elections.
正如我们在上一次选举中所见到的。
Well, until there are humans involved.
只要有人参与其中就难免这样。
One last question.
最后一个问题。
If everything is location-independent
如果所有的一切 都不受地域限制,
and I can access all of the services from anywhere in the world,
我可以从世界上任何地方 获取所有的服务,
why cannot others tap into some of these services,
那其他人是不是也有机会享有它们,
even if they don't reside within Estonian borders?
即使他们不住在爱沙尼亚呢?
Five years ago,
五年前,
we launched a governmental start-up called e-Residency program
我们的政府发起了 “线上居住”计划,
that for today joins tens of thousands of people.
到现在为止已有数万人加入。
These are businessmen and women from 136 different countries,
这里面有 来自 136 个不同国家的商人,
who establish their businesses digitally,
他们在网络上成立自己的企业,
who do their banking online,
使用线上银行服务,
and who run their companies virtually over e-Estonia platform,
在爱沙尼亚的电子平台上 虚拟运营他们的公司,
within European Union legal framework,
在欧盟法律条款允许的范围内,
using an e-identity card similar to mine
使用和我差不多的电子身份证。
and all of that from anywhere in the world.
这一切都可在世界的任何角落完成。
The Estonian system is location-independent
爱沙尼亚的系统是不受地域限制
and user-centric.
并且以用户为中心的。
It prioritizes inclusiveness, openness and reliability.
它将包容性,开放性 和可靠性置于优先位置,
It puts security and transparency at its center.
将安全性和透明性置于核心位置,
And the data into the hands of the rightful owner,
并且将数据交到 有正当权利的人,
the person they refer to.
它们的拥有者手中。
Don't take my word for it.
空口无凭,
Try it.
去试一试就知道了。
Thank you.
谢谢。
(Applause)
(鼓掌)